Thrombosis and Risk Factors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Thrombosis and Risk Factors Deck (24):
1

Risk factors for thrombosis

Virchow's triad- flow, composition or vessel wall

2

Outline the brief pathology of arterial thrombosis

Atherosclerosis, rupture of atheromatous plaque, endothelial injury, platelet aggregation

3

Describe the composition of thrombi in venous thrombosis

Pred. fibrin and RBCs, less platelets

4

Complication of venous thrombosis

Venous thromboembolism (VTE)

5

Treatment for VTE

Low molecular weight heparin e.g. fondaparinux
Newer anticoagulants e.g:
Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban
IIa inhibitors dabigatran
Compression stockings

6

Natural procoagulants

Clotting factors

7

Natural anticoagulants

Antithrombin III
Proteins C+S
Fibrinolytics

8

How does heparin work?

Increases antithrombin activity

9

Does LMWH predominantly target Xa or IIa?

Xa

10

Does fondaparinoux predominantly target Xa or IIa?

entirely Xa

11

Diagnostic test for VTE

Wells score
D-dimer test
Ultrasound
VQ scan

12

What test is used to measure the breakdown products of fibrin clots- specific to plasmin acting on fibrin

D-dimer

13

What does the VQ scan pick up in PE?

Ventilation:perfusion mismatch

14

What are the advantages of novel anticoagulants?

Dose is uniform for post patients and rapid onset

15

Target INR

2.5

16

Familial or acquired disorder of the haemostatic mechanism likely to predispose to thrombosis

Thrombophilias

17

Heritable thrombophilias

Antithrombin def
Protein C def
Protein S def
FV leiden-activated protein C resistance
Prothrombin 20210A
Dysfibrinogenaemia

18

Prothrombin 20210A

Too much prothrombin

19

An example of an acquired thrombophilia

Antiphospholipid syndrome- autoimmune, hypercoagulable state

20

Clinical features of thrombophilia

VTE
Superfical thrombophlebitis
Thrombosis of cerebral, axillary, portal and mesenteric veins
Coumarin induced skin necrosis (PC deficiency)
Obstetic complications- fetal wastage- thrombosis of placental circulation

21

What is the function of protein C

Breaksdown Va and VIIIa

22

What is the function of protein S

Cofactor for protein C

23

Describe factor V leiden

Va resistant to protein C

24

Examples of hypercoagulable state

FV leiden
Pill
Pregnancy
Immobility