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Flashcards in GI Pathology 2 Deck (48):
1

Bling ended out pouchings of bowel

Diverticular disease

2

give an example of aquired diverticular disease

Meckle's

3

Where are diverticula commonly found?

Sigmoid colon, between mesenteric and anti-mesenteric taenia coli

4

What is the cause of diverticular disease

Uncoordinated peristalsis- increase in intraluminal pressure
Points of relative weakness in the bowel wall

5

Where in the bowel wall do penetrations occur?

At the arteries, where they enter the mucosa of the wall

6

Clinical presentation of diverticula disease

Cramping abdominal pain
Alternating diarrhoea and constipation

7

3 acute complications of diverticular disease

Diverticulitis/peridiverticular abscess
Perforation
Haemorrhage

8

4 chronic complicatioons of diverticular disease

Intestinal obstruction
Fistula
Diverticular colitis
Polypoind prolapsing mucosal fold

9

Which part of the bowel wall is colitis usually confined to?

Mucosa

10

Give 3 causes of acute colitis

Acute infection (camplylocbacter, salmonella, CMV)
Antibiotics
Drugs

11

Give a cause of chronic colitis

Chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease

12

What 2 diseases come under idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease

Crohns and UC

13

Smoking is a) a risk factor, b)protective of which diseases

a) Crohns b)UC

14

Which part of the colon do you find UC

Starts in the rectum, spreads to a variable extent along colon

15

Crypt abscesses in crohn's or UC?

UC

16

Complications of UC

Toxic megacolon and perforation
Haemorrhage
Stricture
Carcinoma

17

What part of the GI tract does Crohn's affect?

Mouth to anus (most common form is ileocolic)

18

Skip lesions- discontinuous cobblestoning, and granulomas in UC or Crohn's

Crohn's

19

Mainly mucosal inflammation

UC

20

transmural inflammation

Crohn's

21

Anal lesions more common

Crohn's

22

Fistulae more common

Crohn's

23

Strictures more common

Crohn's

24

Serositis

Crohn's

25

Inflammatory polyps more common

UC

26

The name of the chronic liver disease, often in UC patients, which is a big risk factor for colorectal cancer

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

27

Types of colorectoal polyps

Pedunculated
Sessile
Flat

28

2 main types of non-neoplastic polyps

Hyperplastic
Hamartomatous

29

Describe hyperplastic polyps

1-5mm in size, often multiple. Only when large (>10mm) and on the right side are they capable of becoming malignant.

30

2 types of hamatomatous polyps

Peutz-jegher's
Juveline

31

Juveline polyps are common in what age group, what do they look like, where are they found and what tpe of cancers are they associated with?

Teenagers and children
Spherical and pedunculated
Found in the rectum and distal colon
Associated with colorectal cancer and gastric cancer

32

AD condition- polyps

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

33

Multiple GI tract polyps and muco-cutaneous pigmentation (lips, buccal mucosa, fingers and toes)

Peutz Jeghers

34

Peutz jeghers polyps are found where?

Small bowel

35

Peutz jeghers syndrome predisposes you to what types of cancer?

colon, pancreas, stomach

36

What type of benigh neoplastic polyp may be a precursor to colorectal cancer?

Adenoma

37

What types of adenoma are most at risk of malignant change?

'flat'
>10mm
Vilous and tubulo villous
HNPCC associated adenomas

38

Risk factors for colorectal cancer

Diet
Obesity
Alcohol
NSAIDs
HRT and oral contraceptives
Schistosomiasis
Pelvic radiation
UC, Crohns

39

What staging is used for colorectal cancer

Duke's staging

40

Dukes stage A

Confined to wall no lymph node metastasis

41

Dukes stage B

Invades through wall, no lymph node metastasis

42

Dukes stage C

Regional lymph node metastasis

43

Dukes stage D

Distant metastasis present

44

familial cancer syndrome with a 100% lifetime risk of large bowel cancer

FAP

45

Familial cancer syndrome with a mutation in the APC tumour suppressor gene

FAP

46

familial cancer syndrome with a 50-70% lifetime risk of large bowel cancer and other cancers

HNPCC

47

familial cancer syndrome with a mutation in the DNA mismatch repair gene

HNPCC

48

Most common colorectal cancer

Adenocarcinoma (>95%)