Paediatric Haematology Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Paediatric Haematology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Paediatric Haematology Deck (24):
1

Site of haematopoeisis in children

liver

2

Site of haematopoeisis in adults

bone marrow

3

What does haematocrit take into account?

Size of RBCs and concentration of Hb

4

Describe WBCs in children

More lymphocytes in children
IgG crosses the placenta, IgM does not
Breast milk has all antibodies
Start producing own antibodies at 2-3 months
Vaccinations start at 2 months but require regular boosters

5

When do foetuses reach adult numbers of platelets?

18 weeks- important to develop early as biggest risk to foetus during birth is bleeding

6

Describe the responsiveness of children's platelets to VWF

Hyperresponsive

7

Which clotting factors are normal at birth?

Fibrinogen, FV, FVIII, FXIII

8

When do clotting factors reach adult values?

By 6 months

9

What is haemorrhagic disease of the newborn and why does it come about?

foetal vit. K is 10% of mothers- increase risk of bleeding

10

Describe the concentration of coagulation inhibitors in children

Decreased 9ATIII, heparin, protein C, protein S

11

Describe the relative concentrations of D dimers and vWF in children

Increased

12

Describe the 3 most common causes of peripheral destruction of RBCs causing anaemia in childhood

Haemaglobinopathy
Peripheral destruction
Blood loss

13

Describe 2 autoimmune haemaglobinopathy in neonates and children

Rh incompatibility- can cross placenta
ABO incompatibility- can't corss placenta so rarely a problem

14

Describe a membrane defect which can cause anaemia in children

Hereditary sperocytosis

15

Describe 2 enzyme defects associated with anaemia in children

G6PD deficiency
Pyruvate kinase deficiency

16

2 examples of how blood loss in children/foetuses can come about

Twin to twin transfusion
Fetomaternal haemorrhage

17

What is the most common nutritional deficiency in children; iron, B12 or folate

Iron

18

Give 5 causes of acquired childhood anaemia

Nutritional deficiency
Bone marrow failure
Bone marrow infiltration
Peripheral destruction; haemolysis
Blood loss

19

Give 3 causes of congential bleeding problems in children

Platelet problems
Clotting factor problems
Connective tissue disorders (Ehler's danlos)

20

Give 6 causes of acquired bleeding problems in children

Trauma
Tumour
Infection
Immune disorder
Bone marrow fialure
Drug related

21

Give 2 examples of infections in children that can cause acquired bleeding problems

Meningococcus
HIV

22

Give 2 examples of primary immune disorders in children that can cause bleeding and bruising

Immune thrombocytopenia
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

23

Give 2 examples of secondary immune disorders in children that can cause bleeding and bruising

SLE
ALPS-autoimmune lyphoproliferative syndrome

24

Mode of inheritence for autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

AD