Diseases of the Renal System 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diseases of the Renal System 1 Deck (64)
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1

What are the 4 main functions of the kidney

Eliminate metabolic waste products
Regulate fluid and electrolyte balance
Acid-base balance
Produce some hormones (renin, erythropoietin)

2

What are the 2 main types of mechanisms of glomerular damage?

Immunological
Non-immunological

3

Give 4 conditions whcih cause damage to the glomerulus by immune complexes being deposited in the glomerulus

Lupus
IgA nephropathy
Henoch Schonlein Purpura
Membranous purpura

4

Give 2 examples of conditions that cause damage to the basement membrane through the deposition of antibodies

Anti glomerular basement membrane disease (goodpasture's syndrome)
Post infective glomerulonephritis

5

5 mechanisms of vascular damage in the kidneys

Thrombotic microangiopathy
Vasculitis
Hypertension
Diabetes
Atheroma e.g. renal artery stenosis

6

Thrombi in capillaries and small arterioles, due to damaged endothelium (bacterial toxins, drugs) or abnormalities in clotting e.g haemolytic uraemic syndrome

Thrombotic microangiopathy

7

Give an example of vasculitis that can affect the kidney

Wegener's granulomatosis

8

Nephrotic syndrome is due to damage of what part of the renal system?

Glomerulus

9

What are the signs of nephrotic syndrome

Hypoalbuminaemia
Proteinuria
Oedema
+/-hypertension
+/-hyperlipidaemia

10

Complciations of nephrotic syndrome

Infections, thrombosis

11

4 causes of nephrotic syndrome

Membranous neuropathy
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)
Minimal change disease
Diabetes, lupus nephritis, amyloid

12

Most common cause of nephrotic syndrome

Membranous neuropathy

13

Primary glomerular disorder of unknown cause. 30-60yrs, 20-30% progress to end stage renal failure

Membranous neuropathy

14

A pattern of kidney damage affecting the podocytes, with various possible causes (idiopathic, genetic, heroin use, HIV)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

15

Which causes of nephrotic syndrome are more common in males than females?

Membranous neuropathy
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

16

In children, what are the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome?

Minimal change disease, or FSGS (less common)

17

What are the 5 signs of acute nephritis

Oedema
Proteinuria
Acute renal failure
Haematuria
Hypertension

Both nephrotic syndrome and nephritis OPAHH

18

4 main causes of acute nephritis

Post infective glomerulonephritis
IgA nephropathy
Vasculitis
Lupus

19

Typically occurs a few weeks after streptococcoal throat infection; common cause of acute nephritis

post infective glomerulonephritis

20

Most common primary glomerular disease- teenagers and young adults iwth haematuria

IgA nephropathy

21

What proportion of people with IgA nephropathy will progress to renal failure over 20 years

20-50%

22

Cause of nephritic syndrome; presents with fever, generally unwell, rash, myalgia, arthralgia

Vasculitis

23

Autoimmune disease commonly affecting women, that can be a cause of acute nephritis

Lupus

24

What are the 3 most common causes of nephritis in children?

Post infective glomerulonephritis
IgA nephropathy
hencoch-schonlein purpura
haemolytic-uraemic syndrome

25

A specific type of IgA nephropathy that is more common in males than females- arthralgia ,abdo pain, rash and haematuria and acute renal failure

Henoch schonlein purpura

26

Typically affects children with E.coli 0157 enteritis

Haemolytic uraemic syndrome

27

What are the 3 signs of haemolytic uraemic syndrome

Acute nephritis, haemolysis and thrombocytopenia

28

What 3 things must be present for a diagnosis of acute renal failure

Anuria/oliguria
High plasma creatinine levels
High plasma Urea

29

What are the 3 classes of causes for acute renal failure

pre-renal
renal
post-renal

30

Give 2 examples of pre renal causes of acute kidney failure

Severe dehydration
Hypotension e.g. bleeding, septic shock, LV failure

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