Bacterial and Fungal Meningitis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bacterial and Fungal Meningitis Deck (76):
1

Is meningitis usually cause by viruses or bacteria/

Viruses

2

Is meningitis usually cause by viruses or bacteria/

Viruses

3

Is encephalitis usually caused by viruses or bacteria?

Viruses

4

Insidious onset of fever, headache +/- neck stiffness, altered consciousness, seizures, focal neurological signs.

Brain abscess

5

Are brain abscesses usually caused by viruses or bacteria?

Bacteria, may be parasitic

6

What are the 2 main ways in which microorganisms can invade the brain?

Blood bourne invasion-blood brain barrier or blood CSF barrier
Peripheral nerves

7

Describe the appearance of neisseria meningitidis

Gram -ve diplococci

8

What does neisseria meningitidis, haemophilus influenzae and streptococcus pneumonia all have in common with regards to their requirements for growth?

All require blood

9

Give 5 examples of the capsular types of neisseria meningitidis

A, B, C, W135, Y

10

Where is the natural habitat of neisseria meningitidis?

Nasopharynx

11

Is what demographics of people is neisseria meningitidis carried in?

Smokers, uni students

12

Name 2 virulence factors for neisseria meningitidis

Capsulated
Acquires iron from transferin

13

Name 6 ways in which neisseria meningitidis presents

Septicaemia
Septicaemia with purpuric rash
Septicaemia with meningitis
Meningitis with no rash
Chronic meningococcal bacteraemia with arthralgia
Focal sepsis
Conjunctivitis, endopthalmitis

14

What does purpuric mean?

non blanching

15

Treatment for neisseria meningitidis, haemophilus influenzae and streptococcus pneumonia

Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, penicillin (NM), ampicillin (HI)

16

In which type of bacteiral meningitis is chemoprophylaxis of contacts of invasive disease NOT routinely done?

Streptococcus pneuomoniae

17

The current vaccinations against Neisseria meningitidis target which strains?

Group A,C and W135. None againsts group B

18

Where in the world is epidemics of neisseria meningitidis common? Usually group A

Arican meningitis belt

19

Describe the appearance of haemophilus influenzae

Gram -ve bacilli

20

What are the different strains of haemophilus influenzae and which is the most invasive disease?

a-f. B

21

Virulence factors of haemophilus influenzae

Type B capsule
Fimbriae
IgA proteases

22

Vaccines are available for what strain of haemophilus influenzae?

Type B

23

Vaccines are available for what strain of haemophilus influenzae?

Type B

24

Is encephalitis usually caused by viruses or bacteria?

Viruses

25

Insidious onset of fever, headache +/- neck stiffness, altered consciousness, seizures, focal neurological signs.

Brain abscess

26

Are brain abscesses usually caused by viruses or bacteria?

Bacteria, may be parasitic

27

What are the 2 main ways in which microorganisms can invade the brain?

Blood bourne invasion-blood brain barrier or blood CSF barrier
Peripheral nerves

28

Describe the appearance of neisseria meningitidis

Gram -ve diplococci

29

What does neisseria meningitidis, haemophilus influenzae and streptococcus pneumonia all have in common with regards to their requirements for growth?

All require blood

30

Give 5 examples of the capsular types of neisseria meningitidis

A, B, C, W135, Y

31

Where is the natural habitat of neisseria meningitidis?

Nasopharynx

32

Is what demographics of people is neisseria meningitidis carried in?

Smokers, uni students

33

Name 2 virulence factors for neisseria meningitidis

Capsulated
Acquires iron from transferin

34

Causes of lymphocytic meningitis

Viruses
Spirochete (type of bacteria)
TB
Crytococcus

35

What does purpuric mean?

non blanching

36

Treatment for neisseria meningitidis, haemophilus influenzae and streptococcus pneumonia

Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, penicillin (NM), ampicillin (HI)

37

In which type of bacteiral meningitis is chemoprophylaxis of contacts of invasive disease NOT routinely done?

Streptococcus pneuomoniae

38

Diagnosis for brain abscesses

Brain imaging

39

Where in the world is epidemics of neisseria meningitidis common? Usually group A

Arican meningitis belt

40

Describe the appearance of haemophilus influenzae

Gram -ve bacilli

41

What are the different strains of haemophilus influenzae and which is the most invasive disease?

a-f. B

42

Which age group is haemophilus influenzae most common in?

infants

43

Virulence factors of haemophilus influenzae

Type B capsule
Fimbriae
IgA proteases

44

Chemoprophylaxis of contacts is done using what antibiotic?

Rifampicin

45

Vaccines are available for what strain of haemophilus influenzae?

Type B

46

Another name for streptococcus pneumoniae

Pneumococcus

47

Describe the appearance of strep. pneumoniae

Gram +ve cocci. Cells arrange in pairs

48

How is strep pneumoniae transmitted?

Droplet

49

What diagnostic test confirms pneumococci?

Optochin

50

What treatment is given at the same time as antibiotics in adults for treatment of strep. pneumo meningitis?

Steroids (dexamethosome) It decreases the concentration of vancomycin in the CSF, so rifampicin must be used as well.

51

3 common causes of neonatal meningitis

Group B beta-haemolytic streptococci
E.Coli
Listeria monocytogenes

52

At what age is septicaemia the diagnosis, compared to meningitis

less than 2 days old- septicaemia (early)
more than 5 days old- meningitis (late)

53

Treatment for neonatal meningitis

Cefotaxime, ampicillin, gentamycin

54

Complications of meningitis

Death
Overwhelming sepsis
Increased intracranial pressure

55

Long term problems of meningitis

Deafness, delayed development, seizures, stroke, hydrocephalus

56

Another term for lymphocytic meningitis

Aseptic

57

Causes of lymphocytic meningitis

Viruses
Spirochete (type of bacteria)
TB

58

What is the likely causative organism for insidious onset meningitis in immunocompromised or alcoholics

TB

59

Likely causative organism for brain abscess that has spread from adjacent structures e.g. middle ear or sinuses

Streptococci anaerobes

60

Likely causative organism for brain abscess that has spread from blood stream

Staph A

61

Diagnosis for brain abscesses

Brain imaging

62

Meningitis caused by a yeast, insidious onset

Crytococcal meningitis

63

How is cryptococcus identified in CSF?

Indian Ink Stain

64

What is the treatment for cryptococcal meningitis?

Amphotericin, flucytosine or fluconazole

65

Which lobes does encephalitis preferentially affect?

Temporal lobes

66

Give 3 organisms that cause toxin mediated CNS infections

Japanese encephalitis virus
Rabies encephalitis
Clostridium tetani

67

What type of virus is japanese encephalitis virus?

Arbovirus (transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks or arthropods)

68

What percentage of people die from rabies encephalitis?

100% if untreated

69

Describe the appearance of clostridium tetani

Gram +ve forming bacillus 'drumstick' anaerobe

70

How is clostridium tetani commonly transmitted

Contaminated soil infecting wounds

71

How does clostridium tetani produce a convulsive contraction of voluntary muscles?

toxin spreads in bloodstream and binds to ganglioside receptors and blocks release of inhibitory interneurones

72

The word for jaw spasms

trismus

73

Spin arching spasm

Opisthotonus

74

What are the clinical signs of tetanus (lock jaw)

tonic muscle spasms
trismus
opisthotonus
respiratory difficulties
cardiovascular instability

75

Treamtnet for tetanus

antitoxin
Penicillin or metronidazole

76

Prevention for tetanus

Toxoid