Flashcards in Introduction to Haematology Deck (48):
The physiological development process that gives rise to the cellular components of the blood.
What are the 4 forms of self-renewal that a haematopoietic stem cell can undergo
Asymetrical self renewal
Lack of self-renewal (2xP)
Lack of self-renewal
What type of self renewal increases the stem cell pool?
Symetrical self renewal
What type of self renewal maintains the stem cell pool and generates differentiated progeny?
What type of self-renewal depletes the stem cell pool and only generates differentiated progeny
Lack of self renewal
What are the 2 haematopoietic lineages
At day 27, haemopoiesis starts where?
Aortagonad mesonephros region
At day 40, haematopoietic stem cells migrate where?
Life span of erythrocytees
When plasma vol. is low and high conc of RBCs
What are the 2 major groups of leukocytes
Most common WBC
Lifespan of neutrophils
A few hours
Increased numbers of neutrophils, when might this happen?
Neutrophilia e.g. infection, inflammation
Decreased numbers of neutrophils, when might this happen?
Neutropenia e.g. side effect of a drug
A rare WBC, part of the primative immune system
Describe the differentiation of monocytes
Migrate to tissues and are then identified as macrophages. (histiocytes e.g. kupffer cells in liver, langerhans cells in skin)
Increased numbers of monocytes, when might this happen
Monocytosis e.g. TB
3 types of lymphocytes
Innate immune system, large granular lymphocytes that recognise 'non self'
Lymphocytes associated with humoral immunity
Lymphocytes associated with cell-mediated immunity
Examples of when you might get lymphocytosis
Glandular fever, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
Examples of when you might get lymphopenia
Post bone marrow transplant
Platelets are derived from what cell?
Normal Hb concentration
Normal RBC concentration
Normal WBC concentration
What does the FBC test
Concentration of Hb
White cell count
3 examples of coagulation screens
Activated partial thromboplastin time
Liquid marrow is aspirated from posterior iliac crest of pelvis. Trephine core biopsy
Bone marrow aspirate and trephine
The set of values for a given test that incorporates 95% of the population
Microcytic hypochromic anaemia
Causes of microcytic hypochromic anaemia
Anaemia of chronic disease
MCH > 27
low serum iron
Normocytic normochromic anaemia
Causes of normocytic normochromic anaemia
Anaemia of chronic disease
After acute blood loss
Bone marrow failure
Can be megaloblastic or non megaloblastic
Abnormally large, immature, and dysfunctional red blood cell, sometimes seen in macrocytic anaemia
Causes of macrocytic megaloblastic anaemia
Vit B12 or folate deficiency
Causes of non megaloblastic macrocytic anaemia
Alcohol, liver disease, myelodysplasia, aplastic anaemia etc
Haematological findings of iron deficiency
Low MCV and MHC. Small pate RBCs, variable size and shape. Lon, thin 'pencil' cells
Haematological findings of vit B12 deficiency
RBCs much bigger. Hypersegmented neutrophils and oval macrocytes
Reduced levels of serum iron, MCV and MCH are within the normal ranges
Norcocytic, normochromic anaemia