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Flashcards in Introduction to Haematology Deck (48):
1

The physiological development process that gives rise to the cellular components of the blood.

Haemopoiesis

2

What are the 4 forms of self-renewal that a haematopoietic stem cell can undergo

Symetrical self-renewal
Asymetrical self renewal
Lack of self-renewal (2xP)
Lack of self-renewal

3

What type of self renewal increases the stem cell pool?

Symetrical self renewal

4

What type of self renewal maintains the stem cell pool and generates differentiated progeny?

Asymetrical self-renewal

5

What type of self-renewal depletes the stem cell pool and only generates differentiated progeny

Lack of self renewal

6

What are the 2 haematopoietic lineages

Myeloid
Lymphoid

7

At day 27, haemopoiesis starts where?

Aortagonad mesonephros region

8

At day 40, haematopoietic stem cells migrate where?

Foetal liver

9

Life span of erythrocytees

120 days

10

low RBCs

Anaemia

11

high RBCs

Polycythaemia

12

When plasma vol. is low and high conc of RBCs

Relative polycythaemia

13

What are the 2 major groups of leukocytes

Granulocytes (myeloid)
Lymphocytes (lymphoid)

14

Most common WBC

Neutrophils

15

Lifespan of neutrophils

A few hours

16

Increased numbers of neutrophils, when might this happen?

Neutrophilia e.g. infection, inflammation

17

Decreased numbers of neutrophils, when might this happen?

Neutropenia e.g. side effect of a drug

18

A rare WBC, part of the primative immune system

Basophils

19

Describe the differentiation of monocytes

Migrate to tissues and are then identified as macrophages. (histiocytes e.g. kupffer cells in liver, langerhans cells in skin)

20

Increased numbers of monocytes, when might this happen

Monocytosis e.g. TB

21

3 types of lymphocytes

Natural killers
B Lymphocytes
T lymphocytes

22

Innate immune system, large granular lymphocytes that recognise 'non self'

Natural killers

23

Lymphocytes associated with humoral immunity

B cells

24

Lymphocytes associated with cell-mediated immunity

T cells

25

Examples of when you might get lymphocytosis

Glandular fever, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

26

Examples of when you might get lymphopenia

Post bone marrow transplant

27

Platelets are derived from what cell?

Megakaryocytes

28

Normal Hb concentration

115-175g/L

29

Normal RBC concentration

4-6.5x1012/L

30

Normal WBC concentration

4-11x109/L

31

Normal MCV

80-100

32

Normal MCH

27-33

33

What does the FBC test

Concentration of Hb
MCV, MCH
White cell count
Platelet count

34

3 examples of coagulation screens

Prothrombin time
Activated partial thromboplastin time
Thrombin time

35

Liquid marrow is aspirated from posterior iliac crest of pelvis. Trephine core biopsy

Bone marrow aspirate and trephine

36

The set of values for a given test that incorporates 95% of the population

Reference range

37

MCV

Microcytic hypochromic anaemia

38

Causes of microcytic hypochromic anaemia

Iron deficiency
Thalassaemia
Anaemia of chronic disease
lead poisoning

39

MCV 80-95
MCH > 27
low serum iron

Normocytic normochromic anaemia

40

Causes of normocytic normochromic anaemia

Haemolytic anaemias
Anaemia of chronic disease
After acute blood loss
Renal disease
Mixed deficiencies
Bone marrow failure

41

MCV>95
Can be megaloblastic or non megaloblastic

Macrocytic anaemia

42

Abnormally large, immature, and dysfunctional red blood cell, sometimes seen in macrocytic anaemia

Megaloblastic

43

Causes of macrocytic megaloblastic anaemia

Vit B12 or folate deficiency

44

Causes of non megaloblastic macrocytic anaemia

Alcohol, liver disease, myelodysplasia, aplastic anaemia etc

45

Haematological findings of iron deficiency

Low MCV and MHC. Small pate RBCs, variable size and shape. Lon, thin 'pencil' cells

46

Haematological findings of vit B12 deficiency

RBCs much bigger. Hypersegmented neutrophils and oval macrocytes

47

Reduced levels of serum iron, MCV and MCH are within the normal ranges

Norcocytic, normochromic anaemia

48

Describe the pathology of megaloblastic macrocytic anaemia

B12/folate deficiency- RBCs can't synthesise DNA quick enough to divide at the right point in their growth, so cells are abnormally large and MCV and MCH are low