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Flashcards in CNS Injury III Deck (14):
1

Define concussion.

(n.) a clinical syndrome characterized by immediate and transient impairment of neural function – such as alteration of consciousness, disturbance of equilibrium, etc. – due to mechanical forces

2

Which lobes are most often affected in concussions?

Frontal and temporal

3

What type of radiologic study is best at detecting injury from TBIs?

MRI

4

Of the accelerational injuries, which is more damaging?

Rotational

5

Linear TBIs frequently cause ipsilateral __________ and contralateral ___________.

skull fractures; brain contusions

6

After a concussion, axons swell due to calcium influx. What causes the calcium influx?

Failure of the sodium-potassium pump

7

A study conducted at UCLA showed that ___________ in the brain of a football player who suffered a concussion were severely decreased.

glucose uptake levels

8

What is the most common tool for rating concussions?

The SAT (standard assessment of concussion)

9

What is the basis of treating concussions with rest and protection?

As mentioned in another flashcard, TBIs induce widespread release of glutamate – leading to excitotoxicity. Treating a concussion with rest gives the damaged brain a chance to process the excess glutamate release.

10

How many deaths due to head injury occur per year in the United States?

52,000

11

What are the three categories within the Glasgow coma scale?

Motor (6)
Verbal (5)
Eyes (4)

12

As given by GCS, what are mild, moderate, and severe TBIs?

Mild: 13 - 15
Moderate: 9 - 12
Severe: 3 - 8

13

Why is a second concussion soon after another so much worse than one alone?

Because the immediate vasodilation gets added to the existent cerebral edema, leading to catastrophic results

14

Compounding the problem of evaluating those with TBIs (particularly in the military) is the fact that symptoms such as irritability, anxiety, insomnia, depression, and cognitive dysfunction overlap with _______.

PTSD

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