Flashcards in Toxic/Metabolic/Nutritional Disease Deck (17):
Airplane glue – which some people huff recreationally – is high in toluene, a chemical that _____________ neurons.
Methanol toxicity targets what brain structure?
Ethyl alcohol damages __________ early.
Binge drinking can result in _____________.
Chronic alcoholism affects the brain in these typical ways: ________________.
Describe the facial features of those with fetal alcohol syndrome.
Thin upper lip
Small eye openings
Small head circumference
Describe the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy.
With liver failure, ammonia is not converted to urea. It passes to the brain and induces more synthesis of GABA and glutamate (because ammonia is a reactant in the reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthetase).
Thiamine is ____________.
vitamin B1 ("to THIne own–one–self B true)
Thiamine deficiency is mostly seen in __________.
Most metabolic disorders are ______________.
acquired and without morphological correlates
Name two medications that can lead to toxic effects on the CNS.
Doxorubicin and vincristine
Methotrexate damages which CNS cells?
Your patient has elevated AST and ALT, and he starts showing signs of neurologic impairment. What should you think of?
Cerebral edema secondary to liver failure
Decreased caloric intake leads to what gross brain finding?
Low weight without microscopic changes
Thiamine deficiency can induce what encephalopathy? Where in the brain does this present?
Medial thalamus, floor of the fourth ventricle, periacqueductal gray matter, and mammillary bodies
In the extreme, B12 deficiency can lead to ____________.
spinal cord disease