Toxic/Metabolic/Nutritional Disease Flashcards Preview

MS2 - Nervous System > Toxic/Metabolic/Nutritional Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Toxic/Metabolic/Nutritional Disease Deck (17):
1

Airplane glue – which some people huff recreationally – is high in toluene, a chemical that _____________ neurons.

demyelinates

2

Methanol toxicity targets what brain structure?

The putamen

3

Ethyl alcohol damages __________ early.

white matter

4

Binge drinking can result in _____________.

cerebral edema

5

Chronic alcoholism affects the brain in these typical ways: ________________.

Cerebellar degeneration
Meningeal fibrosis
Cortical atrophy

6

Describe the facial features of those with fetal alcohol syndrome.

Thin upper lip
Small eye openings
Small midface
Small head circumference
Indistinct philtrum

7

Describe the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy.

With liver failure, ammonia is not converted to urea. It passes to the brain and induces more synthesis of GABA and glutamate (because ammonia is a reactant in the reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthetase).

8

Thiamine is ____________.

vitamin B1 ("to THIne own–one–self B true)

9

Thiamine deficiency is mostly seen in __________.

alcoholics

10

Most metabolic disorders are ______________.

acquired and without morphological correlates

11

Name two medications that can lead to toxic effects on the CNS.

Doxorubicin and vincristine

12

Methotrexate damages which CNS cells?

Astrocytes

13

Your patient has elevated AST and ALT, and he starts showing signs of neurologic impairment. What should you think of?

Cerebral edema secondary to liver failure

14

Decreased caloric intake leads to what gross brain finding?

Low weight without microscopic changes

15

Thiamine deficiency can induce what encephalopathy? Where in the brain does this present?

Wernicke's encephalopathy
Medial thalamus, floor of the fourth ventricle, periacqueductal gray matter, and mammillary bodies

16

In the extreme, B12 deficiency can lead to ____________.

spinal cord disease

17

Vitamin E deficiency produces what effects?

Sensory/motor loss
Myopathy
Retinopathy

Decks in MS2 - Nervous System Class (111):