Speech and Aphasia Flashcards Preview

MS2 - Nervous System > Speech and Aphasia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Speech and Aphasia Deck (30):
1

Define behavioral neurology.

The subspecialty of neurology concerned with the effects of structural brain disease or injury on behavior

2

Define neuropsychiatry.

The subspecialty of psychiatry with essentially the same interests as behavioral neurology (behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry are now formally affiliated).

3

What is neuropsychology?

The branch of psychology devoted to the study of brain-behavior relationships (neuropsychologists are PhDs who conduct neuropsychological testing, not neuropsychiatric testing).

4

Mental status exams – this lecture mentioned two – are good at tracking ____________, but they cannot __________.

decline over time; diagnosis conditions in the absence of other information

5

A person who has forgotten how to do a movement (or can no longer perform that movement because of an injury) is said to have ___________.

apraxia

6

Acute confusional state is also known as __________.

delirium

7

Impaired recognition – whether visual, auditory, or tactile – is called ___________.

agnosia

8

One way to describe the difference between neurology and psychiatry is that neurology deals with conditions that have __________, while psychiatry deals with conditions that __________.

identifiable structural lesions (such as Lewy bodies or neurofibrillary tangles); do not have an identified structural cause

9

What is aphasia?

An acquired disorder of language caused by brain damage

10

Dysarthria is a __________ disorder.

motor disorder (that is, the brain can still process language fine)

11

Dysphonia is due to impaired function of what structure?

The larynx!

12

Most people are _______ hemisphere dominant for language.

left (99% of right-handed people and 67% of left-handed people)

13

What does "parcellate" mean?

(v.) to divide into parcels

14

A person who has intact understanding of speech but whose speech is telegrammatic and effortful likely has a lesion/stroke in which part of the brain?

The left middle cerebral artery supplying Brodmann's areas 44 and 45 (Broca's aphasia)

15

Impaired understanding of language is processed in which Brodmann area?

22 (Wernicke's aphasia)

16

Paraphasias are _____________.

unintended words or syllables

17

Someone with paraphasias might have a lesion in _________ area.

Wernicke's

18

What is the band of white matter that connects Broca's area to Wernicke's area?

Arcuate fasciculus

19

Global aphasia often presents concurrently with ___________.

right-sided hemiparesis

20

Alexia with agraphia often localizes to the ____________.

left angular gyrus

21

Prosody is the ____________.

inflection of language with emotion

22

Impairments in what usually accompany aphasia?

Reading and writing

23

Those with Broca's area deficits have good ______________.

understanding – their deficit is in producing language

24

Ischemia to the perisylvian region will lead to what kind of aphasia?

Global – perisylvian basically means the whole region next to the lateral fissure

25

There are two widely used mental status surveys: the MMSE and the MoCA. Which is newer?

The MoCA

26

"Extracortical" refers to regions that ______________.

are adjacent to the perisylvian region

27

"Press of speech" (i.e., rapid, unbridled speech) is called ____________.

logorrhea

28

What linguistic ability is spared in patients with transcortical aphasia?

Repetition

29

Describe the four types of transcortical aphasia.

Transcortical motor: problems initiating speech
Transcortical sensory: like Wernicke's but less severe
Anomic: problem naming things
Mixed: only ability left is repetition (echolalia)

30

What are the broad principles of treating aphasia?

Treat the underlying lesion/mass/ischemia
Offer speech/language therapy as early as possible
Offer psychiatric care if needed

Most improvement occurs in the first year
No drug has been shown to be effective

Decks in MS2 - Nervous System Class (111):