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MS2 - Nervous System > Cortical Lesions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cortical Lesions Deck (25):
1

What area of the cortex is phylogenetically older?

The hippocampus

2

The cerebral cortex comprises how many cells?

20 billion

3

Each cortical neuron connects to _________ other neurons.

20,000

4

There are diffuse and focal disorders of cortical dysfunction. Describe some examples.

Diffuse: neurodegenerative disorders (like Alzheimer's); metabolic disorders

Focal: stroke; contusion; neoplasm

5

Benign tumors damage the brain by ___________, while malignant tumors damage the brain by ___________.

mass effect; infiltration

6

What are the functions of the frontal lobes?

Voluntary movement
Comportment
Prosody
Executive function
Motivation
Language production

7

What are the functions of the temporal lobes?

Audition
Language comprehension
Sensory prosody
Memory
Emotion

8

What are the functions of the parietal lobes?

Tactile sensation
Visuospatial reasoning
Attention
Reading
Writing
Calculation

9

What are the functions of the occipital lobes?

Vision

10

Prosody is primarily controlled by ____________.

the inferior gyrus of the nondominant frontal lobe

11

Someone who presents with perseveration may have lesions to ____________.

the frontal lobes (this is a form of executive dysfunction)

12

Because of the experience of H.M., surgeons now do what for temporal lobe epilepsy?

They remove only one lobe, not both.

13

Temporal lobe epilepsy results from _____________.

focal cortical lesions in the temporal lobe

14

Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy often develop what personality changes?

Hyperreligiosity
Deepened emotional states
Hypergraphia

15

Hemineglect most often presents after lesions to the ________ lobe.

right parietal

16

What is the pathophysiologic basis of hemineglect?

The right parietal lobe can attend to both sides of the visual field, but the left can only attend to the right. As such, a lesion to the left will not produce hemineglect of the right, but a lesion of the right will produce hemineglect of the left.

17

Prosopagnosia results from lesions to what brain region?

right occipitotemporal lobe

18

What is alexia without agraphia?

A syndrome in which the patient is able to write but not read (also called pure alexia)

19

What area, if lesioned, can produce inability to understand the prosody of speech?

Right Brodmann 22 (the analogue of Wernicke's area)

20

Bilateral occipitoparietal lesions can lead to a condition in which multiple inputs are not understood. What is this called?

Simultanagnosia

21

What brain area is usually damaged in pure alexia?

The splenium of the corpus callosum and the left occipital lobe

22

Motivation is mediated by the _________________.

medial frontal cortices

23

Left occipitotemporal lobe lesions produce ______________, while right occipitotemporal lobe lesions produce _______________.

object agnosia; prosopagnosia

24

Describe the presentation of conduction aphasia.

Normal comprehension, but poor ability to repeat phrases. Speech inflected with paraphasias.

25

What effects can be seen with disconnection of the corpus callosum?

Left hand apraxia, anomia, and agraphia

Decks in MS2 - Nervous System Class (111):