Ophthalmology III Flashcards Preview

MS2 - Nervous System > Ophthalmology III > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ophthalmology III Deck (26):
1

What is the macula?

The area encompassing the fovea and the foveola

2

What are the three layers of the posterior eye?

Outer: sclera (fibrous covering)

Middle: choroid (vascular layer that provides nutritional and metabolic support)

Inner: retina (light-sensitive)

3

What is the uvea?

The iris, ciliary body, and choroid

4

The anterior terminal of the retina is called the ____________.

ors serrata (which surrounds the pars plana)

5

The inner 2/3 of the retina is supplied by which artery?

Central retinal artery (a branch of the ophthalmic)

6

Subretinal hemorrhages demonstrate _________________.

darker blood with blood vessels overlying the hemorrhage

7

Spot hemorrhages of the retina are common in ___________.

diabetes

8

Preretinal hemorrhages have what shape?

Boat (with no overlying blood vessels)

9

Vitreous hemorrhages present with _________ of the retina.

obscuring

10

Cholesterol plaques often present at ____________.

arteriolar bifurcation

11

Retinal capillary ischemia often presents as ___________.

"wool" spots – patches of white (whereas arterial blockage often produces larger swaths of white)

12

The most common cause of blindness in working-age adults is ______________.

diabetic retinopathy

13

The two categories/stages of diabetic retinopathy are ____________.

- non-proliferative (less severe, early symptoms)
- proliferative (more severe)

14

What are the five types of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy?

- microaneurysms
- flame hemorrhages
- dot-blot hemorrhages
- lipid exudates
- diabetic macular edema

15

What are the kinds of proliferative diabetic retinopathy?

- neovascularization
- fibrovascular proliferation

16

Neovascularization can lead to ____________.

glaucoma

17

"Copper and silver wiring" results from ______________.

arteriosclerosis

18

What is wet macular degeneration?

A process in which blood vessels grow out of the choroid and into the retina; leads to scarring

19

True or false: choroid nevi need to be removed.

False. Sometimes they can present problems, but most often they are benign

20

Drusen (an accumulation of lipids and lipofuscin beneath the retina) is a hallmark of ______________.

macular degeneration

21

____________ typically come from the carotids.

Cholesterol emboli

22

Diabetic retinopathy is present in _________ percent of those who've had diabetes for 10 years and ________ percent for 30 years.

50; 90

23

How frequently does VEGF need to be given?

4 - 8 weeks

24

True or false: giving intravitreal VEGF to those with exudative macular degeneration leads to improved vision.

True!

25

The cup-to-disc ratio is supposed to be ____________.

0.3

26

Retinal pigment epithelium provides _____________.

metabolic support to the photoreceptor cells

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