Flashcards in Ophthalmology III Deck (26):
What is the macula?
The area encompassing the fovea and the foveola
What are the three layers of the posterior eye?
Outer: sclera (fibrous covering)
Middle: choroid (vascular layer that provides nutritional and metabolic support)
Inner: retina (light-sensitive)
What is the uvea?
The iris, ciliary body, and choroid
The anterior terminal of the retina is called the ____________.
ors serrata (which surrounds the pars plana)
The inner 2/3 of the retina is supplied by which artery?
Central retinal artery (a branch of the ophthalmic)
Subretinal hemorrhages demonstrate _________________.
darker blood with blood vessels overlying the hemorrhage
Spot hemorrhages of the retina are common in ___________.
Preretinal hemorrhages have what shape?
Boat (with no overlying blood vessels)
Vitreous hemorrhages present with _________ of the retina.
Cholesterol plaques often present at ____________.
Retinal capillary ischemia often presents as ___________.
"wool" spots – patches of white (whereas arterial blockage often produces larger swaths of white)
The most common cause of blindness in working-age adults is ______________.
The two categories/stages of diabetic retinopathy are ____________.
- non-proliferative (less severe, early symptoms)
- proliferative (more severe)
What are the five types of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy?
- flame hemorrhages
- dot-blot hemorrhages
- lipid exudates
- diabetic macular edema
What are the kinds of proliferative diabetic retinopathy?
- fibrovascular proliferation
Neovascularization can lead to ____________.
"Copper and silver wiring" results from ______________.
What is wet macular degeneration?
A process in which blood vessels grow out of the choroid and into the retina; leads to scarring
True or false: choroid nevi need to be removed.
False. Sometimes they can present problems, but most often they are benign
Drusen (an accumulation of lipids and lipofuscin beneath the retina) is a hallmark of ______________.
____________ typically come from the carotids.
Diabetic retinopathy is present in _________ percent of those who've had diabetes for 10 years and ________ percent for 30 years.
How frequently does VEGF need to be given?
4 - 8 weeks
True or false: giving intravitreal VEGF to those with exudative macular degeneration leads to improved vision.
The cup-to-disc ratio is supposed to be ____________.