Flashcards in CNS Neuropharmacology Deck (25):
The main excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS is ________, while the main inhibitory neurotransmitter is __________.
5HT and indoleamines are other names for __________.
GABA is formed from glutamate via ____________.
GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase)
How is GABA signalling primarily terminated?
By reuptake into the presynaptic terminal
Describe two drugs that prolong/strengthen the GABA signal.
Tiagabine (by inhibiting the reuptake of GABA) and vigabactrin (by inhibiting the degradation)
Describe how GABA(A) and GABA(B) work.
They are both inhibitory, but GABA(A) is ionotropic and exerts its effect by opening a chloride channel – which hyperpolarizes the cell. GABA(B) is metabotropic and works by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase – which then decreases calcium conductance and opens potassium channels (both of which hyperpolarize the membrane).
Acetylcholine is synthesized by ____________ and degraded by _____________.
choline acetyl transferase (CAT); choline esterase
Acetylcholine is pumped into vesicles by the protein ______________.
vesicle-associated transporter (VAT)
There are five subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine channels (M1 - M5). List the mechanisms of each.
M1, M3, M5: Gq stimulation of PLC (GQ is a magazine for men... "the odd man out)
M2, M4: inhibit adenylyl cyclase
The rate-limiting enzyme for both dopamine and the catecholamines is ____________.
The adrenergic system has four receptors: alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, and beta-2. List the mechanism by which each works.
Alpha-1: Gq stimulates PLC
Alpha-2: Gi/o inhibits adenylyl cyclase and opens K channels
Beta-1 and beta-2: stimulates adenylyl cyclase
Hierarchical neuron systems are found in delineated pathways such as ____________.
motor and sensory tracts
Baclofen is a _________ agonist.
What drug is a GABA(A) antagonist?
Seizures can result from depressed activity of which receptor?
GABA(A) – this is why benzodiazepines are given to those having seizures!
What two receptors does lamotrigine block?
Voltage-gated sodium channels and voltage-gated calcium channels
Ketamine is an antagonist of the __________ channels.
Lamotrigine is used to treat __________.
What kind of receptors are NMDA and AMPA?
Ionotropic glutamate receptors
Dopamine and norepinephrine only bind to _____________ receptors.
Black widow venom works by _____________.
increasing acetylcholine release
What is the generic name for Chantix?
__________ is an indirect alpha-1 adrenergic agonist.
___________ is an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist.