Flashcards in Neuro-Ophthalmologist Deck (18):
If you interrupt the sympathetic input, you get an abnormal __________ reaction.
dark (that is, the pupil won't dilate in the dark)
Interruption of the parasympathetic input results in _______________.
abnormal light reaction
Horner syndrome results in _____________.
small pupil and mild ptosis (baby ptosis)
Painful Horner syndrome can be _____________.
carotid artery dissection – extremely important because it can be stroke
Most of the axons that stimulate miosis are due to the __________ response.
near response (the light response only takes up about 10% of the fibers)
A disorder that leads to defective quadrants of the visual field are called _____________.
What does homonymous field defect mean?
That each eye has the same piece missing (e.g., both eyes cannot see the upper right quadrant)
Lesions to the ___________ produce "pie-in-the-sky" visual disturbances without affecting the central focus.
Learn the retinotopy of the occipital cortex.
Imagine a small circle at the center of the visual divided into quadrants: 1 is UL, 2 is LL, 3 is UR, and 4 is LR. The quadrants are represented on the opposite hemisphere, and on the opposite side of the calcarine sulcus (so 1 – the UL – is on the right hemisphere inferior to the calcarine sulcus). The smallest number ism most superficial (so 1 is superficial) and then count up by 4s (so 5 is deep to 1 and 9 is deep to 5).
Afferent pupillary defects must occur in the axons of ____________.
cells prior to the LGN
The most important question to ask in a double-vision case is _______________. Later ask which directions make the diplopia worse or whether it's worse with neat or far objects.
"is it present when one eye is closed?"
Physiologic anisocoria is less than __________.
The _____________ muscle is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system and leads to dilation of the pupil.
Where is the first-order neuron in the Horner-system pathway?
Hypothalamus to spinal cord
The superior oblique muscle moves the eye _____________.
down and intorsion
The inferior oblique muscle moves the eye ______________.
up and extorsion
Static downbeat nystagmus can result from what condition?
Arnold-Chiari with compression of the flocculonodular lobe