Neuro-Ophthalmologist Flashcards Preview

MS2 - Nervous System > Neuro-Ophthalmologist > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuro-Ophthalmologist Deck (18):

If you interrupt the sympathetic input, you get an abnormal __________ reaction.

dark (that is, the pupil won't dilate in the dark)


Interruption of the parasympathetic input results in _______________.

abnormal light reaction


Horner syndrome results in _____________.

small pupil and mild ptosis (baby ptosis)


Painful Horner syndrome can be _____________.

carotid artery dissection – extremely important because it can be stroke


Most of the axons that stimulate miosis are due to the __________ response.

near response (the light response only takes up about 10% of the fibers)


A disorder that leads to defective quadrants of the visual field are called _____________.



What does homonymous field defect mean?

That each eye has the same piece missing (e.g., both eyes cannot see the upper right quadrant)


Lesions to the ___________ produce "pie-in-the-sky" visual disturbances without affecting the central focus.

inferior occipital


Learn the retinotopy of the occipital cortex.

Imagine a small circle at the center of the visual divided into quadrants: 1 is UL, 2 is LL, 3 is UR, and 4 is LR. The quadrants are represented on the opposite hemisphere, and on the opposite side of the calcarine sulcus (so 1 – the UL – is on the right hemisphere inferior to the calcarine sulcus). The smallest number ism most superficial (so 1 is superficial) and then count up by 4s (so 5 is deep to 1 and 9 is deep to 5).


Afferent pupillary defects must occur in the axons of ____________.

cells prior to the LGN


The most important question to ask in a double-vision case is _______________. Later ask which directions make the diplopia worse or whether it's worse with neat or far objects.

"is it present when one eye is closed?"


Physiologic anisocoria is less than __________.

1.0 mm


The _____________ muscle is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system and leads to dilation of the pupil.

radial iris


Where is the first-order neuron in the Horner-system pathway?

Hypothalamus to spinal cord


The superior oblique muscle moves the eye _____________.

down and intorsion


The inferior oblique muscle moves the eye ______________.

up and extorsion


Static downbeat nystagmus can result from what condition?

Arnold-Chiari with compression of the flocculonodular lobe


What is a tonic pupil?

An abnormally dilated pupil because of "a portion not wired up to the light reaction"; results from damage to ciliary ganglion that provides parasympathetic input; slow reaction to light – faster reaction to accommodation

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