Flashcards in Neurons, Glia, and Brain Tissue Deck (30):
In general, white matter is _________ to gray matter in the cortex. In the spinal cord, however, it is opposite: ___________.
deep; gray matter is on the inside
Tracts, peduncles, and fasciculi are all examples of ______ matter.
Nuclei are an example of _________ matter.
Once stimuli pass from dendrites to the cell body, the _________ regulates whether the signal will continue down the axon.
What stain selects for RNA?
Why do neurons need to make a lot of protein?
They are large cells, requiring extensive cytoskeletons to transport proteins to the periphery of axons and dendrites.
Which kind of neuron (peripheral or central) can regrow damaged axons?
Peripheral (CNS axons can regrow – demonstrated in vitro – but they are prevented from doing so by astrocytes)
Stacks of rough endoplasmic reticulum are called ___________.
Necrosis due to damaged axons is called ___________.
chromatolysis (loss of coloring)
What are myelin cells in the CNS called?
Oligodendrocytes or oligodendroglia
What are myelin cells in the PNS called?
Embryologically, the nervous system comes from _____-derm.
The microglia are the __________ of the brain.
Why does ATP activate microglia?
ATP outside cells is a sign of lysis
What are the three types of supportive cells in the CNS?
Astrocytes provide what function in the CNS?
They fill in the spaces between cells.
What is the most common neurotransmitter?
What cell type is responsible for maintaining the blood-brain barrier?
Astrocytes (by instructing endothelial cells to form tight junctional complexes preventing leakage of plasma into extracellular space)
List the functions of astrocytes.
- Neurotransmitter clearance
- Neuronal support
- Blood-brain barrier
- Local control of blood flow
What is the cellular difference between white and gray matter?
White matter is myelinated.
The white matter can be thought of as merely the ______________.
cables connecting the processing areas of the brain
Cell bodies all live in ________ matter.
Most pathways are named using a __________ system.
"from-to" (so the corticospinal tract connects the motor system in the cortex to the spin)
In terms of action potentials, how do dendrites and cell bodies differ from axons?
Dendrites and cell bodies are generally passive – meaning the electrical signal decreases with distance – while axons have voltage-sensitive channels that propagate an action potential.
In general, axons greater than ________ are myelinated.
Recent research has indicated that __________ dysfunction may be a source of chronic pain.
Unlike oligodendrocytes, which can myelinate _________ cell(s), Schwann cells can myelinate ________ cell(s).
many; only one
___________ envelop all blood vessels in the central nervous system.
What two sites in the brain do not have the blood-brain barrier?
The circumventricular organs: caudal medulla and the hypothalamus