Flashcards in Ophthalmology I Deck (27):
What is a fundoscopic exam?
Looking into the eye with an ophthalmoscope
Which kind of conjunctivitis is more common?
Viral (adenoviruses most common)
Viral conjunctivitis commonly occurs after __________.
____________ is used to treat viral conjunctivitis.
Nothing, usually. It is usually self-limited and resolves in a week. Severe cases can be treated with steroids.
How are bacterial conjunctivitis cases treated?
With one-week courses of antibiotics – usually one of the following:
* 3rd/4th generation fluoroquinolone
True or false: you should do an extensive workup when someone presents with iritis for the first time.
False. Recommendations state that the second case warrants workup, not the first.
Describe Schirmer's test.
The ophthalmologist places test strips on the lower eyelid and measure the rate of tear production (demonstrated by absorption lines in the test strip).
Punctal plugs work by ___________.
blocking the lower ocular outflow tract, causing more tears to accumulate on the surface of the eye
Herpetic keratitis is most often HSV-__.
One of the most frequent causes of vision loss is _____________.
Where does light focus in nearsightedness and farsightedness?
Nearsightedness: too anterior
Farsightedness: too posterior
What portion of people older than 40 have refractive errors?
What is presbyopia?
Gradual inability to see near objects that happens with age; due to inflexibility of lens; usually appears betwee age 40 and 50
How far from the letter chart are you supposed to stand in a Snellen test?
Bilateral red eyes most often are due to _____________.
dryness or allergic conjunctivitis
Pre-aurical lymphadenopathy and watery eye discharge indicates ____________.
The most common organisms that cause bacterial conjunctivitis are ______________.
Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae
How is iritis treated?
Steroids and dilating eyedrops – sometimes glaucoma meds, too
The eyes can become slightly cloudy after ___________.
Minor corneal abrasions can be treated with _____________.
artificial tears (more severe should be given antibiotics)
For corneal ulcers, give __________ for small and ____________ for large.
4th generation fluoroquinolone; bacterial culture
Herpetic keratitis should be treated with ______________.
topical trifluridine and oral acyclovir
Describe the differing appearances of herpetic keratitis and herpes zoster ophthalmicus with fluorescein.
HK: dendritic spines
HZO: swollen, circular lesions
Herpes zoster ophthalmicus should be treated with ______________.
oral acyclovir or valacyclovir
Closed angle glaucoma is ________________.
when the iris closes off the gap between the posterior and anterior portions of the aqueous humor
How does open angle glaucoma affect vision?
It leads to a gradual decrease in peripheral vision.