Ophthalmology I Flashcards Preview

MS2 - Nervous System > Ophthalmology I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ophthalmology I Deck (27):
1

What is a fundoscopic exam?

Looking into the eye with an ophthalmoscope

2

Which kind of conjunctivitis is more common?

Viral (adenoviruses most common)

3

Viral conjunctivitis commonly occurs after __________.

URIs

4

____________ is used to treat viral conjunctivitis.

Nothing, usually. It is usually self-limited and resolves in a week. Severe cases can be treated with steroids.

5

How are bacterial conjunctivitis cases treated?

With one-week courses of antibiotics – usually one of the following:
* tobramycin
* sulfacetamide
* 3rd/4th generation fluoroquinolone

6

True or false: you should do an extensive workup when someone presents with iritis for the first time.

False. Recommendations state that the second case warrants workup, not the first.

7

Describe Schirmer's test.

The ophthalmologist places test strips on the lower eyelid and measure the rate of tear production (demonstrated by absorption lines in the test strip).

8

Punctal plugs work by ___________.

blocking the lower ocular outflow tract, causing more tears to accumulate on the surface of the eye

9

Herpetic keratitis is most often HSV-__.

1

10

One of the most frequent causes of vision loss is _____________.

herpetic keratitis

11

Where does light focus in nearsightedness and farsightedness?

Nearsightedness: too anterior
Farsightedness: too posterior

12

What portion of people older than 40 have refractive errors?

1/3

13

What is presbyopia?

Gradual inability to see near objects that happens with age; due to inflexibility of lens; usually appears betwee age 40 and 50

14

How far from the letter chart are you supposed to stand in a Snellen test?

20 feet

15

Bilateral red eyes most often are due to _____________.

dryness or allergic conjunctivitis

16

Pre-aurical lymphadenopathy and watery eye discharge indicates ____________.

viral conjunctivitis

17

The most common organisms that cause bacterial conjunctivitis are ______________.

Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae

18

How is iritis treated?

Steroids and dilating eyedrops – sometimes glaucoma meds, too

19

The eyes can become slightly cloudy after ___________.

corneal abrasions

20

Minor corneal abrasions can be treated with _____________.

artificial tears (more severe should be given antibiotics)

21

For corneal ulcers, give __________ for small and ____________ for large.

4th generation fluoroquinolone; bacterial culture

22

Herpetic keratitis should be treated with ______________.

topical trifluridine and oral acyclovir

23

Describe the differing appearances of herpetic keratitis and herpes zoster ophthalmicus with fluorescein.

HK: dendritic spines
HZO: swollen, circular lesions

24

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus should be treated with ______________.

oral acyclovir or valacyclovir

25

Closed angle glaucoma is ________________.

when the iris closes off the gap between the posterior and anterior portions of the aqueous humor

26

How does open angle glaucoma affect vision?

It leads to a gradual decrease in peripheral vision.

27

A patient who reports that their vision is "like looking through a dirty window" might have __________.

cataracts – due to age-related breakdown of lens proteins

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