Flashcards in Pharmacology of Ethanol Deck (19):
Alcohol abuse causes ____________ deaths annually.
more than 100,000
What percent of drinkers meet criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence.
Alcohol distributes to water. Thus, those with high body fat have _______________.
less distribution of alcohol (and more CNS effects)
Disulfiram inhibits _____________.
Why does alcoholism lead to increased risk of Tylenol poisoning?
Because the phase I metabolism of acetaminophen leads to the reactive, toxic byproduct, and alcoholism induces CYP450 enzymes.
What hepatic metabolic disturbances can alcoholism cause?
- increased levels of NADH, which leads to decreased gluconeogenesis
- increased blood magnesium (leading to decreased calcium and increased seizures)
- increased blood lactate (acidosis)
- increased acetyl CoA leading to fatty liver
- decreased uric acid secretion
What type of drug is chlordiazepoxide?
What level of alcohol during pregnancy has been shown to be safe?
By trimester, what are the effects of alcohol?
1st: major morphologic abnormality
2nd: increased risk of spontaneous abortion
3rd: decreased fetal growth
Acamprosate is a(n) _______________.
NMDA antagonist (leads to reduction in cravings)
Somewhat surprisingly, ethanol is considered a _______-potency drug.
low (because you need grams to achieve an effect)
A big meal can decrease peak BAC by __________.
90% of Asians have increased activity of what enzyme?
Alcohol dehydrogenase (thus, aldehydes accumulate in the body, leading to vasodilation)
Aldehyde dehydrogenase converts acetaldehyde to _____________.
Alcohol is a direct vaso-_____________.
What groups of drugs are usually given to those in alcohol withdrawal?
Alpha-2 agonists (e.g., clonidine)
Alcohol metabolism generates __________.
Alcohol ___________ glutamate activity.