Pharmacology of Ethanol Flashcards Preview

MS2 - Nervous System > Pharmacology of Ethanol > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology of Ethanol Deck (19):
1

Alcohol abuse causes ____________ deaths annually.

more than 100,000

2

What percent of drinkers meet criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence.

10%

3

Alcohol distributes to water. Thus, those with high body fat have _______________.

less distribution of alcohol (and more CNS effects)

4

Disulfiram inhibits _____________.

aldehyde dehydrogenase

5

Why does alcoholism lead to increased risk of Tylenol poisoning?

Because the phase I metabolism of acetaminophen leads to the reactive, toxic byproduct, and alcoholism induces CYP450 enzymes.

6

What hepatic metabolic disturbances can alcoholism cause?

- increased levels of NADH, which leads to decreased gluconeogenesis
- increased blood magnesium (leading to decreased calcium and increased seizures)
- increased blood lactate (acidosis)
- increased acetyl CoA leading to fatty liver
- decreased uric acid secretion

7

What type of drug is chlordiazepoxide?

Benzodiazepine

8

What level of alcohol during pregnancy has been shown to be safe?

No level

9

By trimester, what are the effects of alcohol?

1st: major morphologic abnormality
2nd: increased risk of spontaneous abortion
3rd: decreased fetal growth

10

Acamprosate is a(n) _______________.

NMDA antagonist (leads to reduction in cravings)

11

Somewhat surprisingly, ethanol is considered a _______-potency drug.

low (because you need grams to achieve an effect)

12

A big meal can decrease peak BAC by __________.

30%

13

90% of Asians have increased activity of what enzyme?

Alcohol dehydrogenase (thus, aldehydes accumulate in the body, leading to vasodilation)

14

Aldehyde dehydrogenase converts acetaldehyde to _____________.

acetate

15

Alcohol is a direct vaso-_____________.

dilator

16

What groups of drugs are usually given to those in alcohol withdrawal?

Alpha-2 agonists (e.g., clonidine)
Benzodiazepines

17

Alcohol metabolism generates __________.

NADH

18

Alcohol ___________ glutamate activity.

decreases

19

Alcohol is more similar to which GABA-receptor-stimulating drug: benzodiazepines or barbiturates?

Barbiturates (because both alcohol and barbiturates open GABA channels regardless of the presence of extracellular GABA, whereas benzodiazepines require GABA)

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