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Flashcards in Mood Disorders Deck (24)

What are the criteria for the diagnosis of major depression? (Sig E Caps)

P(sychomotor agitation or retardation)
S(uicidal thoughts)


What are some risk factors for major depression?

- Premenopausal woman
- Alcohol
- Family History


What is a possible biomarker of depression?

Cortisol - chronically elevated


Monoamine Theory of Depression

Abnormalities within the monoamine systems causative of depression - often too low amounts of the one of these NTs:
◦ Serotonin
◦ Norepinephrine
◦ Dopamine


Inflammatory Theory of Depression

Low levels of chronic inflammation from either active illness or persistent heightened level of corticosteroids from “stress” produce a toxic inflammatory milieu where neurodegeneration increases and neurogenesis is inhibited.


What IL might be associated with depression?

IL-6 - also associated with increased risk of heart disease and Alzheimer's


Structural Theory of Depression

Depression is caused by abnormal changes in brain areas that can be identified premorbidly and are exacerbated in active illness - atrophy of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus suggestive


Network Hypothesis of Depression

It is not specifically an altered brain area that causes depression but aberrancies in the tracts between areas. Diffusion tension imagery has revealed white matter abnormalities in the tracts between the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus.


What are some possible psychological causes of depression?

Loss, abandonment, lack of nurturing, emptiness, anger turned inward, developmental arrest at a dependent stage


What are some possible environmental causes of depression?

Poverty, deaths, famine, wars, oppression, abuse, torture, drugs, learned helplessness, side effects of medications, chemical toxins, infectious diseases, medical conditions


What is a typical infection that can cause a depressive disorder?

EBV - mononucleosis


What are some medications that can induce a depressive disorder?

• Corticosteroids
• Oral contraceptives
• Antipsychotics
• Interferons
• Reserpine


Persistent Depressive Disorder

2 years of duration – depressed mood for most of the day on more days than not- course tends to be non- remitting


Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

In the majority of menstrual cycles at least 1 of the following need to be present during the final week before start of menstruation:
- Marked affective lability
- Marked irritability and anger or interpersonal conflicts
- Marked depressed mood, feelings, or hopelessness
- Marked anxiety, tension, and/ or feeling on edge


Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood

Some signs of depression that cause clinical concern but with an acute stressor that occurred within 3 months of the onset of symptoms - should resolve within 6 months after the stressor.


Bipolar I Disorder

To be diagnosed you must have experienced at least one Manic episode, although most commonly there will be episodes of Major Depression and other mood states in the history.


Bipolar II Disorder

The patient must have experienced a Major Depressive Episode but in addition at least one period of time where they have symptoms of hypomania which is defined as a distinct period of abnormally and persistent elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and increased activity or energy lasting at least 4 days in a row for most of those days.


If there is psychotic thinking present, which Bipolar disorder is diagnosed?

Bipolar I


Cyclothymic Disorder

2 years of minimum of mood cycling but never enough criteria for Bipolar I or II or Major Depressive Disorder.


Bipolar Unspecified

A diagnosis that encompasses many potential patients who have some symptoms of mania and hypomania at times but never enough to meet full criteria.


What is unique about the demographics of bipolar disorder?

Bipolar is unique amongst psychiatric illness as the only illness more prevalent in higher socioeconomic brackets.


Which gender attempts more suicides?



What gender is more successful with suicides?



What are the risk factors of suicide?

-􏰂 currently has a feasible plan in mind
􏰂- history of prior attempts
􏰂- psychosis
􏰂- high anxiety
􏰂- impulsivity
􏰂- presence of a mental disorder
􏰂- substance abuse

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