Disorders of Pulmonary Circulation Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Disorders of Pulmonary Circulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disorders of Pulmonary Circulation Deck (12):
1

What are the treatments for high pressure pulmonary edema?

• Oxygen, noninvasive mask ventilation
• Decrease preload
– nitrates, diuretics, venodilators
• Decrease afterload
– ACE inhibitors, hydralazine
• Increase contractility
– Dobutamine, milrinone

2

What are the treatments for low pressure pulmonary edema?

• Fix the underlying problem
• Lower the hydrostatic pressures
• Mechanical Ventilation
– High PEEP
– Low tidal volumes
• Salvage therapy- ECMO

3

What is the main cause of high pressure pulmonary edema?

Elevated LVEDP causes elevated hydrostatic pressures which result in increased edema formation

4

What are the exam signs of high pressure pulmonary edema?

JVD, S3, hepatomegaly, edema, cool extremities, thready pulse

5

What is the main cause of low pressure pulmonary edema?

Increased permeability (leaky capillaries) - sepsis/trauma related

6

What is the type of edema in low pressure pulmonary edema?

Exudate

7

What is the main condition where low pressure pulmonary edema can occur?

ARDS

8

What are the exam signs of low pressure pulmonary edema?

– Lack of signs of elevated filling pressures.
– If sepsis is the underlying cause, there are typically warm extremities, bounding pulses and a wide pulse pressure.

9

What type of pulmonary edema will have peripheral edema?

High Pressure

10

What is ECMO?

Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation - with a large catheter into the internal jugular vein and it performs oxygenation of the blood

11

What are some risk factors of pulmonary embolism?

• Previous venous thromboembolism
• Age>40
• Immobility, paralysis
• Malignancy
• Major surgery
• Trauma
• Obesity
• Cardiac disease
• Long bone fractures
• CVA
• Nephrotic syndrome
• Estrogens
• Femoral lines
• Parturition
• Hypercoag. states

12

What are some helpful diagnostic tests for pulmonary embolism?

- D-dimer is only helpful if it is negative
- Lower extremity ultrasonography helpful if positive

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