Parasitology III-IV Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Parasitology III-IV Deck (78):
1

What is the severity of symptoms of the helminths infection related to?

The number of organisms at inoculation because they do not multiply within the human host

2

What are the only helminths that reproduce in humans?

- Strongyloides
- Hymenolepsis nana

3

What are the nematodes that are acquired by passage though the skin?

- Strongyloides stercoralis
- Hookworms

4

What is the movement of Strongyloides though the body?

Penetration through the skin is followed by relocation to the lungs and ends up in the intestines

5

Why is Strongyloides a chronic infection?

Due to its ability for autoinfection

6

How is Strongyloides diagnosed?

- Marked eosinophilia
- Rhabditiform larvae in stool

7

What is the treatment for Strongyloides?

Albedazole

8

What are the species of hookworm?

Ancylostoma duodonale
Necator americanus

9

What is the difference in the life cycle of hookworms and Strongyloides?

Ova passed in feces - hatches to R. larva in soil whereas Strongyloides can pass larvae in the stool

10

What are some symptoms of the hookworm infection?

Iron deficiency anemia

11

How are hookworms diagnosed?

Ova found in feces with microcytic anemia

12

What is the treatment for hookworms?

Albendazole

13

What are the nematodes acquired by ingestion?

Visceral/Ocular/Neural Larva Migrans

- Ascaris lumbricoides
- Toxocara canis, Toxocara catis
- Baylisascaris procyonis

14

How is Ascaris lumbricoides diagnosed?

- Ova/worm in the stool
- Barium x-ray

15

What is the treatment for Ascaris?

Albendazole

16

What are the nematodes that humans are accidental hosts for?

- Toxocara canis, Toxocara catis
- Baylisascaris procyonis

17

What are the signs of V/O/N larva migrans?

Wandering larvae produce hemorrhage and inflammation – Eosinophilic infiltration, granulomas - humans are not the right host so worms cannot embed like in their normal host

18

How are visceral larvae migrans diagnosed?

- Larva in tissue
- Serology

19

What is the treatment for visceral larvae migrans?

Albendazole - none effective for Balylisascariasis

20

What is the life cycle of Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)?

Ova are ingested and it develops in the intestine where the female migrates to the perianal region to deposit eggs

21

What are the signs of pinworm infection?

• Perianal and perineal itching
• GU granuloma

22

How is pinworm infection diagnosed?

Ova demonstrated on tape from perianal area

23

What is the treatment for pinworms?

Albendazole - there is reinfection possibility though so MUST TREAT TWICE

24

Where is Trichuris tirchiura infection commonly seen in the world?

In the tropics

25

What is the life cycle of Trichuris tirchiura?

Ingested ova will develop only within the intestine

26

What are the signs of Trichuris tirchiura infection?

Most are asymptomatic but serious infections can have:
– Diarrhea
– Abdominal pain
– Rectal prolapse
– Anemia

27

How is Trichuris tirchiura diagnosed?

Ova in feces with morphology of polar plugs

28

What is the treatment for Trichuris tirchiura?

Albendazole

29

What is the life cycle of Trichinella spiralis?

Infects carnivorous animals like rats, swine and bears and is acquired by ingestion of undercooked meat - enters the skeletal muscle

30

What are the phases of trichinosis?

Phase I - diarrheal intestinal phase
Phase II - migration of larvae to the muscle causing pain - often in the muscles around the eyes
Phase III - recovery

31

How is trichinosis diagnosed?

- Eosinophilia with elevated muscle enzymes
- Serology
- Muscle biopsy

32

What is the treatment for trichinosis?

Albendazole - role of drug is to eliminate the adult form

33

What is the cause of eosinophilic meningitis?

Angiostrongylus cantonensis

34

How is eosinophilic meningitis acquired?

Ingestion of snail or snail secretions

35

How is eosinophilic meningitis diagnosed?

Eosinophils and larvae in CSF

36

What is the life cycle of lymphatic filariasis organisms?

– Larvae transmitted by several mosquito types
– Adults in lymphatics produce larvae which circulate in bloodstream

37

What are the manifestations of lymphatic filariasis?

• Acute - lymphangitis and lymphadenitis
– Nocturnal cough and wheezing
• Chronic - lymphatic destruction
– Obstruction and chronic lymphedema

38

How is lymphatic filariasis diagnosed?

– Eosinophilia
– Bloodsmears

39

How is lymphatic filariasis treated?

– Diethylcarbamazine/Doxycylcine

40

What is the vector of Onchocerciasis?

Black fly Simulium - inoculates onchocerca larvae

41

What are the symptoms of onchocerciasis due to?

Dead or dying microfilariae

42

What is one possible result of Onchocerciasis?

Blindness if the parasite migrates to the eye - keratitis in the lens is one example

43

How is onchocerciasis diagnosed?

– Biopsy
– Skin snips
- Serology

44

What is the treatment for onchocerciasis?

Ivermectin

45

What is the vector of Loa loa?

Tabanid fly Chrysops

46

What are that manifestations of Loa loa infection?

- Painful Calabar swellings
- Worm in conjunctiva

47

How is Loa loa diagnosed?

– Microfilariae in blood smear
– Adult in subcutaneous nodule or eye

48

Whati s the treatment for Loa loa?

Diethylcarbamazine

49

How is Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm) acquired?

Ingestion of copepod containing water from wells - larvae will migrate into tissue

50

What are some characteristic of Guinea worm infection?

Blisters with chronic non-healing sores - typically on the lower extremities

51

How is Guinea worm treated?

See worm in skin or with X-ray

52

What is used to treat Guinea worm?

Metronidazole

53

What is Taenia saginata known as?

Beef tapeworm

54

What is Taenia solium known as?

Pork tapeworm

55

What Diphyllobothrium latum known as?

Fish tapeworm

56

What is Hymenolepsis nana known as?

Dwarf tapeworm

57

What is a defining characteristic of Hymenolepsis?

Autoinfection - can lead to enteritis

58

Cysticercosis

Infection with larval form of T.solium after ingestion of ova from human feces leading to cerebral effects:
– Meningoencephalitis and hydrocephalus
– Space occupying lesions
– Seizures

59

How are tapeworm infections diagnosed?

Ova or proglottids in the feces or MRI/X-ray with cystercercosis

60

What is the treatment for tapeworms?

Praziquantel

61

What is the treatment for cystercercosis?

Albendazole

62

What deficiency can occur with D. latum infection?

Vitamin B12 deficiency

63

What is Echinococcus granulosis known as?

Dog tapeworm

64

What is the sylvatic form of the dog tapeworm?

E. multiocularis

65

What are the clinical signs of E. granulosis?

Space occupying lesion in liver, lung, kidney, bone

66

What are the clinical signs of E. multilocularis?

Spreads like a malignancy

67

What is the difficulty in treatment of the dog tapeworm?

Surgical removal of the cyst but it is difficult to not break open the contents

68

What is the life cycle of Schistosoma?

Complex life cycle that involves snails and can invade through the skin of humans wading in water where they will invade in the liver to reproduce

69

Katayama Fever

Associated with Schistosoma infection with acute fever, cough and LAD that is self-limiting

70

How is Schistosomiasis diagnosed?

– Characteristic ova in feces or urine
– Rectal biopsy crush preparation

71

What is the treatment for Schistosomiasis?

Praziquantel

72

What does S. mansoni ova have as characteristics?

Round with a distinguishing spine

73

Cercarial Dermatitis

• Accidental infection of human swimmers with duck schistosome
• Papular dermatitis with intense itching

74

What are some of the associations of Clonorchis (liver fluke) infection?

– Obstructive biliary tract disease
– Associated with cholangiocarcinoma

75

How is Clonorchis acquired?

• Complex life cycle involving snail
• Acquired by ingestion of metacercariae- infested fish

76

What are the signs of Paragonimus westermani (lung fluke) infection?

Cough, hemoptysis, chronic pneumonia, lung abscess, pleural empyema

77

How is Paragonimus acquired?

• Complex life cycle involving snail
• Acquired by ingestion of metecercaraial- infested crayfish/crab

78

How is Paragonimus diagnosed?

Ova seen in the sputum or in the stool

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