Flashcards in Clinical Approach to Pulmonary Diseases Deck (36)
What are the 3 categories of pulmonary causes of dyspnea?
- Pulmonary HTN
What are the main obstructive lung diseases?
What are the main restrictive lung diseases?
Interstitial Lung Disease
What are the signs and symptoms of obstructive lung diseases?
SOB, DOE, Cough, Tightness, Poor Air Movement, Wheezing and Hyperinflation in CXR
Is asthma a reversible disease?
What are the relievers of asthma and how are they used?
All asthmatics get a puffer - inhaler as a beta agonist that should be used as needed
What are the controllers of asthma and how are they used?
They are anti-inflammatory medications that must be regularly used
What are first line controllers?
What are the second line controllers?
Long Acting beta-Agonists
What are some SE of inhaled corticosteroids?
Can cause inflammation or infection in the throat - this can be managed with teeth brushing after use or a spacer that only allows small particles through
What are SE of long acting beta agonists?
Long acting beta agonists on their own will increase
the risk of dying
What is the 2nd most common cause of chronic cough?
Cough Variant of Asthma
How does exercise induced asthma occur?
- Increased minute ventilation results in mucosal ‘dehydration’ and mast cell degranulation
- Worse in cold, dry air
What is occupational asthma?
Due to inhalational trigger in work environment
What is reactive airway dysfunction syndrome?
Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome - patient
who was normal until one day in their life when
there asthma is triggered and they will have asthma
everyday since that exposure
What is Samter's Triad and what does it relate to?
- Nasal Polyposis
- ASA Sensitivity
It relates to aspirin induced asthma
What is ABPA?
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis - hyperreactivity to aspergillus via IgE - treated with steroids
What are the 2 main classifications of COPD and what are their symptoms?
- Emphysema: Permanent distention of the distal air spaces with destruction of alveolar septa
- Chronic Bronchitis: Excessive sputum production
What are the characteristics of emphysema?
- Maintains a normal pCO2
‘Huffs and Puffs’
- Therefore, maintains a normal pO2
- Appears ‘pink’
What are the characteristics of chronic bronchitis?
- “Accepts” Hypercapnea
- Less tachypneic
Doesn’t burn calories
Results in Hypoxia (Cyanosis)
- Vasoconstriction Edematous
Lots of Mucous
What are some of the medications for COPD?
1. Anti-cholinergics (ipratropium)
2. Beta-agonists (albuterol,pirbuerol,levalbuterol)
What is the recommendation for O2 use?
O2 proved to be beneficial for most COPD patient groups
What is bronchiectasis?
A suppurative lung disease characterized by permanent abnormal dilation of the bronchi
What is a major characteristic of bronchiecctasis?
Daily copious sputum production
“Signet Ring Sign”
The internal diameter of the bronchus is larger than that of its accompanying vessel
The bronchus fails to taper in the periphery of the chest.
What is the cycle of bronchiectasis?
It is the cycle of mucus stasis, infection, inflammation, and airway destruction
What is the main cause of restrictive lung diseases?
Interstitial Lung Diseases
Interstitial Lung Disease
Chronic, non-malignant, non-infectious inflammation and/or derangement of the alveolar walls - increased elastic recoil
What are some examples of interstitial lung diseases?
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/ “IIP’s”
Aspiration / Asbestosis
Connective Tissue Diseases / (Cancer)
Drugs - Amiodarone,Nitrofurantoin, Bleomycin
What are the signs of ILD?
- Reduced TLC
- “Interstitial Markings”
What is sarcoid?
Non-Specific Tissue Reaction
Who is the typical patient of sarcoid?
Young African American Female
Who is the typical patient of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?
Middle Aged/Elderly Male
What are some symptoms of IPF?