Cerebrovascular Disease Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Cerebrovascular Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cerebrovascular Disease Deck (26):
1

Transient Ischemic Attacks

Sudden, focal neurological deficits which completely resolve within 24 hours

2

Stroke

A sudden, focal neurological deficit which does not completely resolve within 24 hours, but may variably improve over several weeks to months

3

What are some of the risk factors of ischemic cerebrovascular disease?

-Aterosclerosis
-Hypertension
-Diabetes
-Smoking
-Hyperlipidemia

4

Where is atherosclerosis predominantly found in the cerebral vasculature?

Atherosclerotic changes predominate at the bifurcation points of large, major cervical and intracranial arteries, perhaps partly due to more turbulent blood flow at these sites.

5

What are the 2 basic mechanisms of cerebral ischemic infarction?

- Thrombosis
- Embolism

6

What do the lenticulostriate arteries supply?

Deep structures such as the basal ganglia, internal capsule, thalamus, and corona radiata.

7

Lacunar Infarcts

Small lesions due to infarction of the lenticulostriate arteries

8

Amaurosis Fugax (monocular blindness)

Carotid territory TIA involving the ophthalmic artery or its retinal branches

9

What do non-ocular carotid territory TIAs cause?

Other carotid TIAs may cause hemispheral ischemia leading to hemiparesis or aphasia.

10

What do vertebrobasilar TIAs cause?

Vertebrobasilar territory TIAs cause ischemia of the brain stem, cerebellum, or visual (occipital) cortex, producing symptoms of ataxia, homonymous hemianopsia, or hemiparesis associated with "crossed" brain stem syndromes.

11

A hemiparesis with greater weakness of the face and upper limb suggests an infarct in...

Precentral MCA

12

A hemiparesis with greater weakness of the lower limb suggests an infarct in...

Precentral ACA

13

Sensory deficits limited to the face and upper limb likewise suggest an infarct in...

Postcentral MCA

14

Sensory deficits limited to the lower limb suggest an infarct in...

Postcentral ACA

15

Pure Sensory Stroke

Lacunar Syndrome of the Thalamus

16

Are lacunar strokes thrombotic or embolic?

Almost always thrombotic

17

What can improve functional recovery after stroke if administered rapidly?

IV tPA can be beneficial if administered within 3 hours of onset of symptoms

18

What is the greatest risk with tPA use?

Intracranial Hemorrhage

19

Why does rupture of blood into brain parenchyma cause ICP?

Arterial pressure is higher than ICP

20

What does a deep hemorrhage hint at as the cause?

HTN

21

What does a superficial hemorrhage hint at as the cause?

Head Trauma

22

What is the most common cause of cerebral hemorrhage?

HTN

23

Arteriovenous Malformations

AVMs are an abnormal connection of cerebral artery to vein, without intervening capillary bed, which enlarge slowly over time - risk for rupture and hemorrhage.

24

What is the most common cause for bleeding into the arachnoid space?

Trauma

25

Second to trauma what is the most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage?

Berry Aneurysm

26

What in the CSF on lumbar puncture can indicated subarachnoid hemorrhage?

Xanthochromia from breakdown of RBCs

Decks in Pathology Class (203):