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Flashcards in Viruses Review Deck (301):
1

What is the most common outcome after infection with poliovirus?

Asymptomatic Infection

2

How is poliovirus transmitted?

Fecal-oral

3

How is infection by poliovirus detected?

Detection of viral sequences by RT-PCR

4

What is the mechanism/pathogenesis of poliomyelitis?

Lytic destruction of anterior horn cells

5

What is the main disease caused by poliovirus?

Poliomyelitis

6

Are there any anti-viral therapies for treating poliovirus-infected patients?

No

7

Are there any vaccines to prevent poliomyelitis - if yes, what ones?

- Live-attenuated oral vaccine
- Killed-virus injected vaccine

8

Are there any long term consequences associated with poliovirus infection?

Long-lived protective immunity

9

What disease is most commonly associated with coxsackie virus?

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

10

What is the mechanism of transmission for coxsackie virus?

Fecal-oral

11

What are the most common method of diagnosis for infections with coxsackie virus?

Clinical diagnosis by common presentation

12

What is the pathogenesis of hand, foot, and mouth disease?

Viremia leading to skin infection and causing cell death

13

Are there antiviral therapeutics for coxsackie virus?

No

14

Are there vaccines available to protect against coxsackie virus?

No

15

Are there long term consequences to coxsackie virus?

Long-lived protective immunity

16

What is the most common form of infection associated with enterovirus D68?

Respiratory Infection

17

What is the mechanism of transmission for enterovirus D68?

- Respiratory
- Contact with contaminated surfaces

18

What are the current methods of detection for infections with D68 virus?

PCR and/or isolate virus and culture for cytopathic effect

19

What is the pathogenesis of infection with D68?

Viremia leading to respiratory tract infection

20

Are there antiviral therapeutics for D68 infections?

Pleconaril for severe cases

21

Are there vaccines available to protect against infection by D68?

No

22

Are there long term consequences to infections with D68?

Long-lived protective immunity

23

What is the family and genome of Hepatitis A virus?

Single stranded positive RNA Enterovirus - Picornaviridae family

24

How is HAV most commonly transmitted?

Fecal-oral

25

What is the recommended current method of detection for Hepatitis A infection?

Serology by antibody capture for HAV specific IgM

26

What is the mechanism of pathogenesis for HAV?

Viremia resulting in targeting of the liver

27

Are there anti-viral therapies available against HAV?

Vaccine can be administered during the prodrome period of infection

28

Is there a vaccine available for protection against HAV?

Killed-virus injected vaccine

29

Are there long term consequences of a HAV infection?

Long-term protective immunity

30

What does rhinovirus normally cause?

Common Cold

31

What is the transmission of rhinovirus?

Respiratory

32

How is rhinovirus diagnosed?

Film array RT‐PCR assay

33

What is the pathogenesis of rhinovirus?

Lytic replication in the respiratory epithelium

34

Are there long term consequences of rhinovirus infection?

Type‐specific immunity

35

Are there vaccines or treatments for rhinovirus?

No

36

What is the most common manifestation of a rotavirus infection?

Epidemic diarrhea in young children

37

How is Rotavirus most commonly transmitted?

Fecal-oral

38

What samples should you send to the lab to make a proper diagnosis of Rotavirus?

Fecal sample

39

What is the pathogenesis of Rotavirus?

Enterotoxin production causing calcium release

40

Are there any effective anti-viral agentsavailable against rotavirus?

No

41

Is there a vaccine currently available for Rotavirus?

- Rotateq: a live-attenuated pentavalent vaccine
- Rotarix: a live-attenated vaccine protective against one genotype

42

Are there any long-term consequences to rotavirus infections?

Short- term immunity with less severe reinfection

43

What is the genome and family of Influenza virus?

Segmented negative strand RNA Orthomyxovirus

44

How is Influenza virus most commonly transmitted?

Respiratory

45

What is the current method of detection of Influenza virus?

Film array RT-PCR assay

46

What is the mechanism of pathogenesis of Influenza virus infection?

Exuberant immune responses cause lethargy, muscle aches, fever while necrotic infected cell debris and inflammatory infiltrates occupy airways and impede breathing

47

Are there any anti-viral therapies available against Influenza virus?

Amantidine or Neuraminidase Inhibitors

48

Are there vaccines available against Influenza virus?

- Live-attenuated vaccine
- Subunit vaccine with current year HA and N

49

Why do people need to be vaccinated annually for Influenza virus?

Because new influenza strains arise due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift

50

What is the most common manifestation of a norovirus infection?

Diarrhea associated with viral infections on cruise ships

51

How is Norovirus most commonly transmitted?

Fecal-oral

52

What tests is the most commonly done in the lab to make a Norovirus diagnosis?

RT-PCR by the public health department

53

What is the pathogenesis of Norovirus?

Lysis and shedding of gut epithelial cells

54

Are there any effective anti-viral agentsavailable against Norovirus?

No

55

Is there a vaccine currently available for Noravirus?

No

56

Are there any long-term consequences to norovirus infections?

Norovirus type specific immunity

57

What is the most common disease associated with RSV?

Severe lower respiratory tract infection in children

58

How is Respiratory syncytial virus usually transmitted?

Inhalation of respiratory droplets

59

What is the current recommended mode of detection for Respiratory syncytial virus?

Film array RT-PCR of nasal wash

60

What is the pathogenesis of RSV?

- Necrosis of bronchiolar epithelium in 18-24 hrs
- Submucosal edema
- Bronchioles occluded with mucus and cellular debris
- Hyperinflation and air trapping

61

Are there any effective anti-viral agentsavailable for treatment of hospitalized children with RSV?

No

62

Are there any effective therapeutics against RSV?

Administer Palivizumab prior to infection - Ab against RSV protein

63

Is there a vaccine currently available for RSV?

No

64

Are there any long-term consequences to RSV infections?

Short term immunity with chance for less severe reinfection

65

What is the most common disease associated with Parainfluenza virus in children?

Croup

66

How is parainfluenza virus transmitted?

Respiratory droplets

67

What is the current recommended mode of detection for Parainfluenza virus?

- Film array RT-PCR
- Clinical diagnosis by common presentation

68

Knowing the pathogenesis of Parainfluenza virus, which of the following are the expected clinical findings?

Coldlike symptoms, bronchitis, croup

69

Are there any effective therapeutic agents available to treat Parainfluenza virus infections?

Glucocorticoids for severe cases of croup

70

Is there a vaccine currently available for Parainfluenza virus?

No

71

Are there any long term complications to Parainfluenza virus infection?

Short-term immunity

72

What is the most common manifestation of disease associated with Mumps virus infection?

Parotitis

73

How is the Mumps virus most commonly transmitted?

Respiratory

74

How is Mumps virus currently diagnosed?

Clinical symptoms with confirmation by serology performed by the public health department

75

What is the most common pathogenesis of a Mumps infection?

Viral replication in respiratory tract leading to viremia & infection and inflammation of parotid gland

76

Are there any approved anti-virals against Mumps infection?

No

77

Is there a vaccine currently available for Mumps virus?

Live-attenuated vaccine in combination with Measles and Rubella and Varicella

78

Are there any major consequences to Mumps infections?

Long-term immunity

79

What is the most common manifestation of disease associated with Measles virus infection?

Maculopapular rash, coryza, cough and conjunctivitis and koplik's spots

80

How is the Measles virus usually transmitted?

Respiratory from the cough of infected person

81

How is Measles virus currently diagnosed?

Clinical symptoms with confirmation by serology performed by the public health department

82

What is the most common pathogenesis of a Measles infection?

Viral replication in respiratory tract leading to viremia and rash

83

Are there any approved anti-virals against Measles infection?

No

84

Is there a vaccine currently available for Measles virus?

Live-attenuated vaccine in combination with Mumps and Rubella and Varicella

85

Are there any major consequences to Measles infections?

Long-term immunity with rare risk of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

86

What is the common name given to Rubella virus infection?

German Measles

87

How is the Rubella virus usually transmitted?

- Respiratory
- Mother to fetus

88

What laboratory test is done to diagnose Rubella virus?

Serology

89

What is the most common pathogenesis of a Rubella infection?

Viral replication in respiratory tract leading to viremia and rash

90

Are there any approved anti-virals against Rubella infection?

No

91

Is there a vaccine currently available for Rubella virus?

Live-attenuated vaccine in combination with Mumps and Measles and Varicella

92

Are there any consequences to Rubella infections in pregnant women?

Congenital Rubella Syndrome

93

What is the genome and family of HIV?

Positive strand RNA lentivirus

94

How is HIV most typically transmitted?

Sexual contact, sharing needles or mother to newborn

95

What is the current method of detection of HIV?

Serology and confirmation by Western blot

96

What is the mechanism of pathogenesis of HIV?

- HIV targets CD4 positive T cells and macrophages causes a flu like syndrome
- Chronic viral replication results in a depletion of CD4 T cells during a period of clinical latency
- Low T cell count increases susceptibility to opportunistic infections and clinical AIDs

97

Are there any available anti-virals to treat patients with HIV?

Yes, triple drug therapy is required to prevent drug resistant mutants from arising during treatment. Antivirals are a combination of reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors and integrase inhibitors.

98

Is there a vaccine available against HIV?

No vaccines are currently available

99

Are there long-term consequences to HIV infection?

Progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

100

What is the most common primary manifestation of HSV1?

Cold Sores

101

How is HSV1 usually transmitted?

Close contact such as kissing, wrestling or sex

102

How is HSV1 typically diagnosed?

Clinical presentation

103

What is the pathogenesis of HSV1?

Primary lytic infection of epithelial cells followed by infection of sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia where the virus can become latent, and reactivation can occur.

104

Are there any anti-virals available against HSV1?

- Acyclovir
- Pritelivir

105

Are there any possible consequences of HSV1?

Latent infection with the possibility for recurrence

106

What is the most common clinical primary manifestation of infection with EBV?

Infectious Mononucleosis

107

How is EBV most commonly transmitted?

Contact with saliva

108

How can infection with EBV be diagnosed?

Monospot test for heterophile antibodies

109

What is the pathogenesis of EBV?

Virus infects epithelia spreading to B cells where it replicates. Virus becomes latent in B cells with sporatic recurrence.

110

Are there any anti-virals available to treat infection with EBV?

No

111

Is there a vaccine available against EBV?

No

112

Are there any possible long term consequences of EBV infection?

- Burkitt's Lymphoma (malaria cofactor)
- Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (Chinese herb cofactor)
- Latent infection with sporadic virus reactivation and shedding

113

What is the most common primary manifestation of HSV2?

Vesicular eruptions on the genitalia

114

How is HSV2 usually transmitted?

- Close contact such as kissing, wrestling or sex
- Mother to newborn

115

How is HSV2 diagnosed?

PCR of viral DNA from the lesion

116

What is the pathogenesis of HSV2?

Primary lytic infection of epithelium of genitalia followed by latent infection of sensory cells of the sacral ganglion. Recurrent infection can occur, usually at the same site as the primary infection.

117

Are there any anti-virals available against HSV2?

- Acyclovir
- Pritelivir

118

Is there a vaccine available for HSV2?

No

119

Are there any consequences of HSV2 infection?

- Latent infection and recurrence
- Neonatal infections leading to recovery, neurological impairment, or death

120

What is the most common primary manifestation of Varicella-zoster infection?

Chicken Pox

121

How is Varicella-zoster usually transmitted?

Respiratory

122

How is infection with Varicella-zoster typically diagnosed?

Clinical presentation

123

What is the pathogenesis of Varicella-zoster infection?

Primary systemic infection with generalized, vesicular rash that results in latent infection that can reactivate as shingles.

124

Are there any anti-virals available to treat Varicella-zoster infection?

Acyclovir

125

Is there a vaccine available for Varicella-zoster?

Live-attenuated vaccine - MMRV

126

Are there any possible consequences of Varicella-zoster?

Latent infection with the possibility for recurrence as shingles

127

What is the most common primary manifestation of infection with CMV?

- Asymptomatic, although severe disease can occur in neonates
- Infectious mononucleosis (about 10% of cases in young children)

128

How is CMV most commonly transmitted?

Saliva, secretions and mother to newborn

129

How can infection with CMV be diagnosed?

- PCR of viral DNA from newborn patient sample
- Serology for CMV specific antibodies from patients with infectious mononucleosis
- Histology for "owl's eye" nuclei of inclusion bodies in CMV pneumonia

130

What is the pathogenesis of CMV?

Virus infects epithelium and establishes latency in T cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Virus shedding from saliva and secretions occurs sporadically throughout life.

131

Are there any anti-virals available to treat infection with CMV?

Ganiciclovir

132

Is there a vaccine available against CMV?

No

133

Are there any possible consequences of CMV infection?

Life long sporadic shedding of virus

134

What viruses can cause roseola?

HHV6 and HHV7

135

What is the most common clinical presentation of Roseola?

Sudden onset of fever for 2 days, followed by rash in infants

136

How is Roseola most commonly transmitted?

Respiratory

137

How can infection with Roseola be diagnosed?

Clinical presentation

138

What is the pathogenesis of Roseola?

Virus incubation for 4 to 7 days, followed by high fever. When the fever ends a rash will appear. Latency is established in T cells with no known reactivation.

139

Are there any anti-virals available to treat infection with Roseola?

No

140

Is there a vaccine available against Roseola?

No

141

Are there any possible consequences of Roseola infection?

Latent infection with no known clinical recurrence

142

In what subset of patients would you normally see Kaposi's sarcoma?

HIV/AIDs patients

143

How is HHV-8 most commonly transmitted?

Sexual contact

144

How can infection with HHV-8 be diagnosed?

Clinical presentation and PCR for viral DNA

145

What is the pathogenesis of HHV-8?

T cells control and resolve infection, but activation of Kaposi's lesions occurs during immunosuppression.

146

Are there any anti-virals available to treat infection with HHV-8?

No, but treating AIDS patients with HAART will restore T cells that will control the HHV-8 infection.

147

Is there a vaccine available against HHV-8?

No

148

Are there any possible consequences of HHV-8 infection?

Kaposi's Sarcoma in immune compromised patients

149

What genetic material is found in parvovirus B19?

Single Strand DNA

150

What is the main disease caused by parvovirus B19?

Erythema Infectiosums (Fifth Disease) - AKA "Slapped-cheek" Syndrome

151

What is the method of transmission of parvovirus B19?

Respiratory

152

How is parvovirus B19 diagnosed?

Clinical diagnosis/Serology/PCR of serum from aplastic crisis

153

What is the pathogenesis of parvovirus B19?

Replicates in erythroid precursor nuclei

154

Is there a vaccine for parvovirus B19?

No

155

Is there a treatment for parvovirus B19?

No - only in immunocompromised patients
- Intravenous Ig for aplastic crisis in immunocompromised patients

156

Are there any long term effects of parvovirus B19 infection?

Long‐term immunity

157

What is the family and genome of Hepatitis C virus?

Single stranded positive RNA Enveloped Flavivirus

158

How is HCV most commonly transmitted?

Transfusion, needle sharing, contact with blood

159

What is the recommended current method of detection for Hepatitis C infection?

RT-PCR and sequencing for genotype

160

What is the mechanism of pathogenesis for HCV?

Viremia resulting in targeting of the liver and persistent infection in the majority of patients

161

Are there anti-viral therapies available against HCV?

Direct acting anti-virals (DAAs) including protease inhibitors and polymerase inhibitors

162

Is there a vaccine available for protection against HCV?

No

163

What is the most clinically significant long term consequence of HCV infection?

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

164

What type of virus causes Yellow Fever?

Positive single strand RNA, enveloped virus Flavivirus

165

How is Yellow Fever usually transmitted?

Insect vector with an urban cycle

166

How is Yellow Fever typically diagnosed?

Clinical diagnosis by common presentation and travel history. Confirmation by serology by the public health department

167

What is the pathogenesis of Yellow Fever?

Viremia resulting in extensive viral replication in the liver

168

How do you treat a patient with Yellow Fever?

Supportive care

169

Is there a vaccine currently available for Yellow fever?

Live-attenuated vaccine

170

Are there any major consequences to Yellow Fever infections?

- Long-term immunity
- Death is possible

171

What is the most severe manifestation of disease associated with Dengue virus?

Hemorrhagic Fever/Break Bone Fever

172

How is Dengue virus usually transmitted?

Mosquito vector with monkey reservoir

173

In places endemic with Dengue virus, what is the laboratory test of diagnosis?

ELISA of serum for NS1

174

What is the pathogenesis of Dengue?

Immunopathogenesis causing fever and rash

175

Are there any effective therapies against Dengue virus?

No

176

Is there an effective vaccine currently available for Dengue virus?

No

177

Are there any major consequences to Dengue virus infections?

Antibody dependent enhancement of disease if infected with another serotype

178

What is the most common cause of epidemic encephalitis in the USA?

West Nile Virus

179

How is West Nile virus usually transmitted?

Mosquito vector with marsh bird reservoir

180

How is West Nile Virus typically diagnosed?

RT-PCR or Serology

181

What is the pathogenesis of West Nile Virus?

Viremia leading to infection of the CNS

182

Are there any effective therapies against West Nile Virus?

No

183

Is there a vaccine currently available for West Nile virus?

No

184

What population is most likely to exhibit severe disease after West Nile virus infections?

Adults over 60

185

What is the family and genome of St Louis Encephalitis Virus?

Single stranded positive RNA Flavivirus

186

What is the reservoir for St. Louis Encephalitis Virus?

Marsh Bird reservoir with an Urban Cycle

187

How is St Louis Encephalitis Virus typically detected?

RT-PCR and Serology

188

What is the pathogenesis of SLEV?

Viremia leading to infection of the CNS

189

Are there any effective therapies against St Louis Encephalitis Virus?

No

190

Is there a vaccine currently available for St Louis Encephalitis virus?

No

191

Are there any major consequences to St Louis Encephalitis virus infections?

Long-term immunity

192

What is the family and genome of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus?

Single stranded positive RNA Togavirus

193

How is EEE virus usually transmitted?

Mosquito vector with a marsh bird reservoir

194

What is the pathogenesis of EEE viral infection?

Viremia leading to infection of the CNS

195

Are there any effective therapies against EEE Virus?

No

196

Is there a vaccine currently available for EEE virus for humans?

No - only for horses

197

Are there any major consequences to EEE viral infections?

Fatality or long-term immunity

198

What are the major diseases associated with Papilloma virus?

- Warts
- Cervical Carcinoma

199

How is Papilloma Virus typically diagnosed?

Clinical presentation with a Pap smear for malignant transformation

200

What is the pathogenesis of Papilloma virus infection?

Virus production associated with cell differentiation with E6 and E7 binding to tumor suppressor proteins

201

Are there any effective anti-viral therapies against Papilloma Virus?

Imiquimod, interferon and cidofovir

202

Is there a vaccine currently available for Papilloma virus?

Virus-like particle from types 6, 11, 16, 18 vaccine

203

Are there any major consequences to Papilloma viral infections?

Cervical Carcinoma

204

What is the most common manifestation of disease associated with existing human Coronavirus infections?

Common cold or Gastroenteritis

205

How are Coronaviruses usually transmitted?

Respiratory spread through close contact

206

How are Coronaviruses currently diagnosed?

Film array PCR

207

What is the best way to describe the pathogenesis of a Coronavirus infection?

Viral replication leading to inflammation

208

Are there any approved anti-virals against coronaviruses?

No

209

Is there a vaccine currently tested and available for Coronaviruses such as SARS?

No

210

Are there any major consequences to emerging coronavirus infections?

Pandemic diseases such as SARS and MERS

211

What is the family and genome of Hepatitis E virus?

Single stranded positive RNA Hepevirus

212

How is HEV most commonly transmitted?

Fecal-oral

213

What is the recommended current method of detection for Hepatitis E infection?

Serology or RT-PCR by the public health department

214

What is the mechanism of pathogenesis for HEV?

Viremia resulting in targeting of the liver

215

Are there anti-viral therapies available against HEV?

No

216

Is there a vaccine available for protection against HEV?

No

217

Are there long term consequences of a HEV infection?

Long- lived protective immunity in healthy individuals; higher chance of mortality in pregnant women

218

What are the manifestations of disease during Adenovirus infection?

- Conjunctivitis
- Multiple URTI syndromes

219

How is adenovirus usually transmitted?

Respiratory - some types can be fecal-oral as well

220

How is adenovirus typically diagnosed?

Film array PCR

221

What is the pathogenesis of adenovirus infection in the eye?

Viral replication leading to inflammation

222

Are there any effective anti-viral therapies against adenovirus?

No

223

Is there a vaccine currently available for adenovirus?

Not for public use - Live-attenuated vaccine for military personnel only

224

Are there any major consequences to adenovirus infections?

Long-term type specific immunity

225

Where is smallpox infections still a prevalent disease?

Nowhere - it has been eradicated

226

How was Smallpox virus usually transmitted?

Respiratory

227

How would Smallpox virus be diagnosed?

Clinical presentation, confirmed by sequencing by Homeland Security

228

What was the pathogenesis of Smallpox virus infection?

Replication in the respiratory tract, viremia leading to characteristic rash

229

Are there any effective anti-viral therapies against Smallpox Virus?

No

230

Is there a vaccine currently available for Smallpox virus?

Live-attenuated vaccine; currently administered to military personnel

231

What is the genetic composition of Smallpox virus?

Enveloped double stranded DNA

232

Are there any major consequences to Smallpox being eradicated?

Not needing continued vaccinations saves the health care system millions of dollars a year

233

What is the family and genome of Hepatitis B virus?

Partly double stranded DNA Hepadnavirus

234

How can HBV be transmitted?

- Sexual
- Mother to newborn

235

What is the recommended current method of detection for Hepatitis B virus infection?

Serology by antibody capture for HBV specific antibodies

236

What is the mechanism of pathogenesis for HBV?

Viremia resulting in targeting of the liver

237

Are there anti-viral therapies available against HBV?

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) such as Lamivudine or Adefovir Dipivoxil

238

Is there a vaccine available for protection against HBV?

Subunit vaccine

239

What is the most clinically significant long term consequence of HBV infection?

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

240

What is the most common disease associated with Hantavirus?

Pulmonary Syndrome

241

How is Hantavirus usually transmitted?

Zoonotic infection from inhalation of urine or feces from infected deer mice

242

What is the current laboratory test for diagnosis of Hantavirus?

Serology performed by the public health department

243

What is the pathogenesis of Hantavirus?

Viral replication in respiratory tract, inflammation and pneumonia

244

Are there any effective anti-viral therapies available for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome?

No

245

Is there a vaccine currently available for Hantavirus?

No

246

Are there any major consequences to Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome?

- Long-term immunity
- Fatality


??????????????? Latency - EDIT Later - not sure if virus is latent or not

247

What family does Ebola virus belong to?

Filoviridae

248

What is the most common manifestation of disease associated with Ebola virus?

Hemorrhagic Fever

249

How is Ebola usually transmitted person to person?

Direct contact with infected blood or body fluids

250

How is Ebola typically diagnosed in the United States?

RT-PCR from the sera

251

What is the pathogenesis of Ebola?

Viremia resulting in extensive viral replication and cell death and organ failure

252

How do you treat a patient with Ebola?

- Supportive care
- Compassionate use of non-FDA approved anti-virals or neutralizing monoclonal antibodies

253

Is there a vaccine currently available for Ebola?

No

254

Are there any major consequences to Ebola infections?

Fatality, persistent infection, or recovery with long-term immunity

255

What are the common symptoms when infected with Colorado Tick Fever Virus?

Fever and rash

256

How is Colorado Tick Fever usually transmitted?

Tick bite

257

What Laboratory test is used to diagnose Colorado Tick Fever?

Serology by the public health department

258

What is the pathogenesis of Colorado Tick Fever?

Viremia resulting in inflammation and rash followed by recovery

259

Are there any effective anti-viral therapies for Colorado Tick Fever Virus?

No

260

Is there a vaccine currently available for Colorado Tick Fever Virus?

No

261

Are there any major consequences to Colorado Tick Fever infections?

Long-term immunity

262

What is the most striking manifestation of Chikungunya virus infection compared to other arboviruses?

Arthralgia

263

What family does Chikungunya virus belong to?

Togaviridae

264

How is Chikungunya virus usually transmitted?

Insect vector

265

How is Chikungunya Virus typically diagnosed in the United States?

Serology and PCR by the public health department

266

What is the pathogenesis of Chikungunya virus infection?

Viremia leading to polyarthralgia and rash

267

Are there any effective therapies against Chikungunya Virus?

No

268

Is there a vaccine currently available for Chikungunya virus?

No

269

Are there any major consequences to Chikungunya viral infections?

Polyarthralgia can last weeks to months

270

What type of genetic material is Hepatitis D made of?

Single stranded RNA viroid - enveloped

271

What is the most serious disease that Hepatitis D can cause?

Fulminant Hepatitis

272

How can Hepatitis D be transmitted?

- Mother to child
- Transfusion
- IV drug use
- Sexual intercourse

273

How is Hepatitis D diagnosed?

Serology by antibody capture

274

What is the pathogenesis of Hepatitis D?

Co-infection with HBV leading to viremia that targets the liver and cause fulminant disease

275

Are there drug therapies or treatment for Hepatitis D?

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)

276

What are the long term outcomes of Hepatitis D infection?

- Chronic Hepatitis
- Death

277

Is there a vaccine available for Hepatitis D?

HBV subunit vaccine

278

What is the genetic material in California Encephalitis Virus?

Negative single stranded RNA that is segmented and has an envelope

279

What is the disease caused by California Encephalitis Virus?

Encephalitis

280

What is the transmission of California Encephalitis Virus?

Mosquito bite

281

How is California Encephalitis Virus diagnosed?

Serology

282

What is the pathogenesis of California Encephalitis Virus?

Viremia leading to CNS infection

283

Are there therapies for California Encephalitis Virus?

No

284

Is there a vaccine for California Encephalitis Virus?

No

285

What is the long term outcome of California Encephalitis Virus?

Long-term immunity

286

What is the genetic material found in Rabies Virus?

Negative single stranded RNA and is enveloped

287

What is the main disease caused by Rabies Virus?

Rabies

288

How is Rabies Virus transmitted?

Bites from skunks, raccoons or bats most commonly - dog bites are actually rare in the US

289

How is Rabies Virus diagnosed?

Detection of viral antigens in the brain; RT-PCR for genotype

290

What is the pathogenesis of Rabies Virus ?

Replication in muscle, spread from nerves to brain via retrograde travel

291

Is there a vaccine available for Rabies Virus?

Killed-virus vaccine

292

Are there therapies available for Rabies Virus?

Anti-rabies Ig post exposure, no therapy on onset

293

What is the long term outcome of Rabies Virus infection?

- Long-term immunity
- Death

294

What is the genetic material of Molluscum Contagiosum?

Enveloped DNA

295

What is the disease caused by Molluscum Contagiosum?

Molluscum Contagiosum

296

How is Molluscum Contagiosum transmitted?

Contact

297

How is Molluscum Contagiosum diagnosed?

Clinical diagnosis from the pearl-like lesions

298

Are there therapies for Molluscum Contagiosum?

No - the lesions take months to resolve

299

Is there a vaccine for Molluscum Contagiosum?

No

300

What is the long term outcome of Molluscum Contagiosum infection?

- Long term immunity
- Persistent infection in AIDS patients

301

Are there long term consequences of a HDV infection?

Reinfection with less severity

Decks in Pathology Class (203):