Visual/Auditory/Vestibular Systems Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Visual/Auditory/Vestibular Systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Visual/Auditory/Vestibular Systems Deck (23):
1

Scotoma

Pathological blind spots in one eye from ocular, retinal or nerve disorder

2

Papilledema

Optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure

3

What impairment of visual acuity is NOT improved with looking through a pinhole?

Lesion of optic nerve or macula

4

Perimetry

Computed visual test that puts together a visual field of a patient using lights and the response of the patient

5

What is suspected if the visual field enlarges as a cone with increased distance?

- Glaucoma
- Retinal Degeneration

6

What is suspected with tunnel vision?

Psychiatric cause

7

What lesion causes left eye blindness?

Left Optic Nerve

8

What lesion causes bitemporal heteronymous hemianopia?

Lesion of Inner Optic Chiasm

9

What lesion causes left nasal hemianopia?

Lesion of the Outer Optic Chiasm on the Left Side

10

What lesion causes right homonymous hemianopia?

Left Optic Tract

11

What lesion causes right superior homonymous quadrantanopia?

Left Inferior Optic Radiation - Meyer's Loop (Temporal Lobe)

12

What lesion causes right inferior homonymous quadrantanopia?

Left Superior Optic Radiation - Parietal Lobe

13

What lesion causes right homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing?

Left Occipital Lobe

14

What are the characteristics of optic neuritis?

- Associated with MS
- Scotoma in one eye with pain
- Optic disc is swollen unilaterally

15

What is optic atrophy?

Occurs weeks after optic nerve lesion with a pale optic disc with sharp, distinct margins - due to destruction of retinal ganglion cell axon

16

Papilledema

- Bilateral swollen discs (neuritis will rarely be bilateral)
- Increased intracranial pressure
- Flame hemorrhages can be seen
- Vision loss will occur if untreated

17

What is a common lesion that can affect the optic chiasm?

Pituitary Tumor

18

What can cause cortical blindness?

Stroke of the posterior cerebral arteries

19

What is a finding with cortical blindness?

Despite total blindness, the pupillary light reflex is normal because the optic nerve is normal

20

Weber Test

Tuning fork on the top of the head and if one side is heard better it indicates conductive deafness on that side OR nerve problem on the contralateral side

21

Rinne Test

Tuning fork at mastoid bone and when the sound stops, hold it in the air and the sound should be heard again because air conduction is better than bone conduction in normal patients. If nothing is heard -> conduction deafness

22

Acute Labyrinthitis

Viral infection or inflammation of inner ear labyrinth; leading to asymmetrical nystagmus, unilateral hearing loss and gait ataxia on examination

23

Benign Positional Vertigo

Minor movements of head creates impulses in vestibular
system due to lodged Ca2+ crystals - common in elderly patients
- Dix Hallpike can be used to test for this

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