Neoplasia III Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Neoplasia III > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neoplasia III Deck (21):
1

What are carcinogens?

Carcinogens are agents that inflict genetic damage by damage to DNA

2

Direct-Acting Carcinogens

They require no metabolic conversion to enact their negative effects.

3

Indirect Acting Carcinogens

They require metabolic conversion to become ultimate
carcinogens.

4

What are promoters?

Promoters are compounds, which themselves are nontumorigenic, however they facilitate the induction of cell proliferation.

5

Carcinogen: Vinyl chloride

Angiosarcoma of the liver

6

Carcinogen: Nitrosamine in smoked foods

Stomach cancer

7

Carcinogen: Asbestos

Mesothelioma and bronchogenic carcinoma

8

Carcinogen: Arsenic

Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

9

Carcinogen: Aflatoxin B

Hepatocellular carcinoma

10

Carcinogen: Cigarette smoke

Carcinoma of the oropharynx, lung, esophagus, kidney, bladder

11

What are some radiation carcinogens?

-Ionizing radiation (X-rays)
-UV light

12

What does Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) cause?

T cell leukemia/lymphoma

13

What does Human papillomavirus (HPV) cause?

Cervical cancer

14

What does Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) cause?

Burkitt Lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

15

What does Hepatitis B and C virus cause?

Hepatocellular carcinoma

16

What are some mechanisms that tumors enact to evade the immune system?

 Failing to express HLA class I and escaping CTL attack
 Eliminating strongly immunogenic subclones
 Suppressing the host immune response; examples: by secreting TGF-beta
 Expressing FasL and inducing immune cell apoptosis
 Producing a thicker coat of glycocalyx molecules blocking access to immune cells

17

What is cancer cachexia?

This results on the loss of body fat, lean body mass, weakness, anorexia, anemia.

18

What are Paraneoplastic Syndromes?

They are symptom complexes that cannot be readily explained by local or distant spread of the neoplasms. They may be mediated by hormone elaboration which is not indigenous to the tumor parenchyma.

Examples are Cushing's Syndrome from a tumor cells in the lung producing ACTH

19

How does grading of cancer work?

Based on the cytologic differentiation (anaplasia, pleomorphism, loss of normal architecture, mitoses) of the tumor cells

Well-differentiated = low grade; poorly differentiated = high grade

20

How does the staging of cancer work?

Staging of a cancer is based on the size of the primary tumor, extent of spread to regional lymph nodes, and the presence or absence of metastases.

21

What is "homing?"

Specific cancers have shown an ability to metastasize to areas of the body far away that show no direct path

Decks in Pathology Class (203):