Word List 12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Word List 12 Deck (112):
1

disfigure

to impair (as in beauty) by deep and persistent injuries

e.g. The statue was seriously disfigured by falling rubble during the earthquake.

2

disfranchise

to deprive of a franchise, of a legal right, or of some privilege or immunity; especially to deprive of the right to vote; disenfranchise

3

disgorge

to discharge by the throat and mouth; vomit
to discharge or let go of rapidly or forcefully
to give up on request or under pressure
to discharge the contents of (as of the stomach)

e.g. The damaged ship disgorged thousands of gallons of oil into the bay.
refused to disgorge his ill-gotten gains

4

disgruntle

to make ill-humored or discontented (usually used as a participial adjective)

e.g. An employee, disgruntled by the restaurant owner's shabby treatment, turned him in to the IRS.

5

disinter

to take out of the grave or tomb
to bring back into awareness or prominence; also to bring to light; unearth

e.g. The Egyptian mummy was carefully disinterred in hopes that it would yield secrets about the Old Kingdom.

6

gusto

an individual or special taste
enthusiastic and vigorous enjoyment or appreciation
vitality marked by an abundance of vigor and enthusiasm

e.g. different gustoes
I don't have the gusto to go on a strenuous hike right now.

7

degustation

the action or an instance of tasting especially in series of small portions

8

disinterested

not having the mind or feelings engaged; not interested or no longer interested
free from selfish motive or interest; unbiased

e.g. The city's philistines, naturally disinterested in art, voted to cut the museum's budget.
Disinterested intellectual curiosity is the lifeblood of real civilization.

9

iniquitous

very unfair or evil

e.g. zero tolerance at the academy for cheating and other iniquitous practices

10

disjunctive

relating to, being, or forming a logical disjunction
expressing an alternative or opposition between the meanings of the words connected
expressed by mutually exclusive alternatives joined by
marked by breaks or disunity

e.g. "Or" and "but" are disjunctive conjunctions.
a disjunctive narrative sequence

11

dislocate

to put out of place, especially to displace (a bone) from normal connections with another bone
to force a change in the usual status, relationship, or order of; disrupt

e.g. Thousands of workers have been dislocated by the latest economic crisis.

12

dislodge

to drive from a position of hiding, defense, or advantage
to force out of a secure or settled position

e.g. The army has dislodged enemy from their stronghold.
dislodged the rock with a shovel

13

dismal

showing or causing gloom or depression
lacking merit; particularly bad

e.g. a dismal performance

14

dismantle

to take to pieces; also to destroy the integrity or functioning or
to strip of dress or covering; divest

e.g. The mechanic dismantled the engine to repair it.
The after-school program was dismantled due to lack of funding.

15

hearten

to give heart to; cheer

e.g. Thinking we were hopelessly lost, we were heartened by the sight of a familiar farmhouse.

16

disparage

to lower in rank or reputation; degrade
to depreciate by indirect means (as invidious comparison); speak slightingly about

e.g. Voters don't like political advertisements in which opponents disparage one another.
disparage polo as a game for the wealthy

17

parity

the quality or state of being equal or equivalent

18

extol

to praise highly; glorify

e.g. campaign literature extolling the candidate's military record

19

disparate

containing or made up of fundamentally different and often incongruous elements
markedly distinct in quality or character

e.g. disparate notions among adults and adolescents about when middle age begins

20

dispassionate

not influenced by strong feeling; especially not affected by personal or emotional involvement

e.g. Journalists aim to be dispassionate observers.

21

dispatch

to send off or away with promptness or speed, especially to send off an official business
to kill with quick efficiency
to dispose of (as a task) rapidly or efficiently
defeat

e.g. Rescue workers were immediately dispatched to the area.
The hotel dispatched a limo to pick us up from the airport.
He dispatched the guard with one bullet.

22

dispensable

capable of being dispensed with; not necessary or required

e.g. dispensable staff

23

dispense

to deal out in portions; administer
to give dispensation to; exempt
to prepare and distribute (medication)

e.g. a newspaper columnist who dispense advice to millions of readers each week
pharmacists certified to dispense medication

24

asperse

sprinkle; especially to sprinkle with holy water
to attack with evil reports or false or injurious charges

e.g. asperse the character of our dedicated pastor

25

ensconce

shelter, conceal
establish, settle

e.g. The sculpture is safely ensconced behind glass.
ensconced themselves within the protection of three great elms
ensconced in the new job

26

dispose

to give a tendency to; incline
to put in place; set in readiness; arrange
bestow

e.g. looking for the perfect place to dispose the new knickknack
disposed the surgical instruments in the exact order in which they would be needed

27

disposed

inclined

28

disposition

the act or the power of disposing or the state of being disposed (administration, control; final arrangement, settlement; transfer to the care or possession of another)
prevailing tendency, mood, or inclination

e.g. a dog with an excellent disposition
He has a disposition toward criminal behavior.

29

disproof

the action of disproving
evidence that disproves

e.g. The DNA evidence was all the disproof need to overturn the wrongful conviction.

30

putative

commonly accepted or supposed
assumed to exist or to have existed

e.g. The putative reason for her dismissal was poor job performance.

31

repute

believe, consider
the character or status commonly ascribed to one; reputation
state of being favorably known, spoken of, or esteemed

e.g. a shop of good repute

32

disrepute

lack or decline of good reputation; a state of being held in low esteem

e.g. a once proud name fallen into disrepute

33

dissemble

to hide under a false appearance
to put on the appearance of; simulate

e.g. children learn to dissemble at a surprisingly early age

34

disseminate

to spread abroad as though sowing seed
to disperse throughout

e.g. disseminate information

35

seminal

of, relating to, of consisting of seed or semen
containing or contributing the seeds of later development; creative, original

e.g. a seminal book

36

dissertation

an extended usually written treatment of a subject, especially one submitted for a doctorate

37

dissident

disagreeing especially with an established religious or political system, organization, or belief

e.g. dissident elements within the church

38

dissimulate

to hide under a false appearance

e.g. As an actress she had been trained to dissimulate, so she had no trouble hiding her true feelings offstage as well.

39

dissipate

to break up and drive off (as a crowd)
to cause to spread thin or scatter and gradually vanish
to spend or use up wastefully or foolishly

e.g. His sympathy was eventually dissipated.
dissipated the family fortune in reckless business ventures

40

dissolute

lacking restrain, especially marked by indulgence in things (as drinks or promiscuous sex) deemed vices

e.g. literature dealing with the dissolute and degrading aspects of human experience

41

dissonant

marked by dissonance; discordant
incongruous

e.g. A dissonant chorus of noises arose from the busy construction site.

42

dissuade

to advise (a person) against something
to turn from something by persuasion

e.g. unable to dissuade her from her intention to drop out of college

43

distension

the act of distending or the state of being distended especially unduly or abnormally

44

nebulous

or, relating to, or resembling a nebula; nebular
indistinct, vague

e.g. made nebulous references to some major changes the future may hold

45

instigate

to goad or urge forward; provoke

e.g. an increase in the amount of violence instigated by gangs
The government has instigated an investigation into the cause of the accident.

46

distracted

mentally confused, troubled, or remote
maddened or deranged especially by grief or anxiety

e.g. She's been distracted about her son ever since he left on that polar expedition.

47

tractable

capable of being easily led, taught, or controlled; docile
easily handled, managed, or wrought; malleable

e.g. The new approach should make the problem more tractable.

48

rapt

lifted up and carried away
transported with emotion; enraptured
wholly absorbed; engrossed

e.g. with rapt attention

49

ditty

an especially simple and unaffected song

50

diurnal

recurring every day; having a daily cycle
of, relating to, or occurring in the daytime
active chiefly in the day time; opening during the day and closing at night

e.g. diurnal tasks
a love as constant and certain as the diurnal tides
the city's diurnal noises
diurnal animals/flowers

51

dial

the face of a sundial; the graduated face of a timepiece
a face upon which some measurement is registered usually by means of graduations and a pointer

52

divert

to turn aside; deviate
distract
to give pleasure to especially by distracting the attention from what burdens or distresses

e.g. studies law but diverted to diplomacy
charged with illegally diverting public funds to private use

53

divest

to deprive or dispossess especially of property, authority, or title
to undress or strip especially of clothing, ornament, or equipment
rid, free
to take away from a person

e.g. We may have to divest assets to raise capital.

54

divestiture

the act of divesting
the compulsory transfer of title or disposal of interests (as stock in a corporation) upon government order

e.g. Divestitures are used to break up monopolies.

55

divine

to discover by intuition or insight; infer
to discover or locate (as water or minerals underground) usually by means or a divining rod
to practice divination; prophesy

e.g. divine the answer to question
It was easy to divine his intention of asking his girlfriend to marry him.

56

divulge

to make known (as a confidence or a secret)

e.g. The company will not divulge its sales figures.

57

doctrinaire

one who attempts to put into effect an abstract doctrine or theory with little or no regard for practical difficulties
of, relating to, or characteristic of a doctrinaire; dogmatic

e.g. A doctrinaire conservative, the columnist takes special delight in baiting liberals.

58

document

to provide with factual or substantial support for statements made or a hypothesis proposed; especially to equip with exact references to authoritative supporting information

e.g. Can you document the claims you are making?

59

dodder

to tremble or shake from weakness or age
to progress feebly and unsteadily

e.g. doddering down the walk outside the nursing home

60

fodder

something fed to domestic animals; especially coarse food for cattle, horses, or sheep
inferior or readily available material used to supply a heavy demand

e.g. His antics always make good fodder for the gossip columnists.
She often used her friends' problems as fodder for her novels.

61

doff

to remove (an article of wear) from the body
to take off (the hat) in greeting or as a sign of respect
to rid oneself of; put aside

e.g. He doffed his cap as he introduced himself.

62

don

to put on (an article of clothing)
to wrap oneself in; take on

e.g. She donned her best gown for the ball.

63

dogged

marked by stubborn determination

e.g. a dogged competitor
a dogged pursuit of power

64

doggerel

loosely styled and irregular in measure especially for burlesque or comic effect; also marked by triviality or inferiority
poetry poorly written and often not meant to be taken seriously

65

dogmatism

positiveness in assertion of opinion especially when unwarranted or arrogant
a viewpoint or system of ideas based on insufficiently examined premises

e.g. a man much given to inflexible dogmatism when it came to the role of government in regulating the economy

66

doldrums

a spell of listlessness or despondency
(oft. cap.) a part of the ocean near the equator abounding in calms, squalls, and light shifting winds
a state or period of inactivity, stagnation, or slump

e.g. The theater scene is usually in the doldrums during the summer.
The team had been in the doldrums ever since losing the championship.

67

doleful

causing grief or affliction
full of grief; cheerless
expressing grief; sad

e.g. a doleful loss
a doleful face
a doleful melody

68

dolorous

causing, marked by, or expressing misery or grief

e.g. dolorous ballads of death and regret

69

jubilant

exultant

e.g. the nominee's jubilant acceptance speech before the cheering crowd

70

dolt

a stupid person

71

doodle

to make a doodle
dawdle, trifle
an aimless or casual scribble, design, or sketch; also a minor work

e.g. She doodled in her notebook instead of taking notes.
I plan to spend the entire vacation just doodling.

72

dossier

a file containing detailed records on a particular person or subject

73

dote

to exhibit mental decline of or like that of old age; be in one's dotage
to be lavish or excessive in one's attention, fondness, or affection (usually used with on)

e.g. dote on her only grandchild

74

doting

foolishly or excessively fond

75

dour

stern, harsh
obstinate, unyielding
gloomy, sullen

e.g. a dour expression
a dour mood

76

congenial

having the same nature, disposition, or tastes
existing or associated together harmoniously
pleasant, especially agreeably suited to one's nature, tastes, or outlook
social, genial

e.g. congenial companions
The town is a congenial place for raising children.
a congenial host

77

douse

to plunge into water
to throw a liquid on; drench
slosh
extinguish
to take in; lower, strike
slacken
take off; doff

e.g. douse the lights
douse a sail
douse a rope

78

down

a covering of soft fluffy feathers; also these feathers
something soft and fluffy like down

79

downplay

play down, de-emphasize

e.g. He self-deprecatingly downplays his own contributions to the festival's success.

80

downpour

a pouring or streaming downward; especially a heavy rain

81

down-to-earth

practical
unpretentious

e.g. down-to-earth traveling tips
surprised to find the movie star so down-to-earth

82

doyen

the senior member of a body or group
a person considered to be knowledgeable or uniquely skilled as a result of long experience in some field of endeavor
the oldest example of a category

e.g. considered the doyen of political journalists

83

draconian

(oft. cap.) of, relating to, or characteristic of Draco of the severe code of laws held to have been framed by him
cruel; also, severe

e.g. The editorial criticizes the draconian measures being taken to control the spread of the disease.

84

drab

of the dull brown color of drab
characterized by dullness and monotony; cheerless

e.g. a drab life

85

draftsman

a person who draws plans and sketches (as of machinery or structures)
a person who draws legal documents or other writings
an artist who excels in drawing

86

drawdown

a lowering of a water level (as in a reservoir)
the process of depleting; reduction

87

drawl

to speak slowly with vowels greatly prolonged

e.g. He drawled his name in a Southern accent.

88

dreary

feeling, displaying, or reflecting listlessness or discouragement
having nothing likely to provide cheer, comfort, or interest; gloomy, dismal

e.g. a gray, dreary morning
The family struggled through dreary economic times.

89

jocund

marked by or suggestive of high spirits and lively mirthfulness

e.g. old friends engaged in jocund teasing

90

dreg

(oft. pl.)
sediment contained in a liquid or precipitated from it; lees
the most undesirable part
the last remaining part; vestige

e.g. the dregs of society
the last dregs of fuel

91

drivel

to let saliva dribble from the mouth; slaver
to talk quickly and carelessly

e.g. drivels about something
The panting dog driveled on my hand.

92

droll

having a humorous, whimsical, or odd quality

e.g. the droll little man white a peculiar sense of humor

93

droop

to hang or incline downward
to sink gradually
to become depressed or weakened; languish

e.g. Her eyelids drooped as she grew tired.
The tree's branches drooped under the weight of the snow.

94

dross

the scum that forms on the surface of molten metal
waste or foreign matter; impurity
something that is base, trivial, or inferior

e.g. There is quite a lot of dross on TV nowadays.
His editor has a talent for turning literary dross into gold.

95

drove

a group of animals driven or moving in a body
a large number; crowd (oft. pl. especially with in)

e.g. People flocked to the annual festival in droves.

96

drudgery

dull, irksome, and fatiguing work; uninspiring or menial labor

e.g. In the "good old days" household servants led lives filled with much drudgery and little pleasure.

97

dubious

giving rise to uncertainty
unsettled in opinion; doubtful

e.g. a dubious plan
The practice is of dubious legality.
I was dubious about the plan.

98

dubiety

- dubious

e.g. The comfort of having a faith free from all dubiety is what attracts people to religious sect.

99

underling

one who is under the orders of another; subordinate, inferior

e.g. The real estate tycoon has a whole army of underlings to attend to the details.

100

resplendent

shining brightly; characterized by a glowing splendor

e.g. meadows resplendent with wildflowers

101

trenchant

keen, sharp
vigorously effective and articulate; also, caustic
sharply perceptive; penetrating
clear-cut, distinct

e.g. a writer with a trenchant wit
a trenchant analysis/ trenchant remarks
a trenchant view of current conditions
the trenchant division between right and wrong

102

dune

a hill or ridge of sand piled up by the wind

103

dupe

one that is easily deceived or cheated; fool
to make a dupe of

e.g. We were duped into thinking the dummy was a real alien.

104

duplicitous

marked by duplicity
deceptive in words or action

e.g. warned her not to trust the duplicitous art dealer

105

durance

restraint by or as if by physical force (usually used in the phrase durance vile)

106

duress

forcible restraint or restriction
compulsion by threat; specifically unlawful constraint

e.g. He gave the information under duress.

107

dwelling

a shelter (as a house) in which people live

e.g. the simple dwellings in which the Pilgrims spent the first winter at Plymouth

108

dwindle

to become steadily less; shrink
to make steadily less

e.g. Our energy dwindles as the meeting dragged on.
The town's population is dwindling away.

109

swindle

to obtain money or property by fraud or deceit
to take money or property from by fraud or deceit

e.g. Hundreds of people were swindled out of their savings, and all they had to show for it were fake land deeds.

110

proliferate

to grow by rapid production or new parts, cells, buds, or offspring
to increase in number as if by proliferating; multiply

e.g. Rumors about the incident proliferated on the Internet.

111

dynamo

generator
a forceful energetic individual

e.g. a dynamo who barely needs to sleep, or so it seems

112

dynamite

an explosive that is made of nitroglycerin absorbed in a porous material and that often contains ammonium nitrate or cellulose nitrate; also, an explosive that contains no nitroglycerin
one that has a powerful effect; also something that has great potential to cause trouble or conflict

e.g. an actress who's dynamite at the box office
an issue regarded as political dynamite