Flashcards in Word List 9 Deck (109):
feeling or showing satisfaction with one's possessions, status, or situation
an act or instance of contending
a pointed advanced or maintained in a debate or argument
e.g. source of contention
in contention for the Olympic medal
likely to cause disagreement or argument
exhibiting an often perverse and wearisome tendency to quarrels and disputes
e.g. a contentious issue
The dispute involves one of the region's most contentious leaders.
to make the subject of dispute, contention, or litigation, especially dispute, challenge
e.g. She plans to contest a seat in the Congress next year.
one of the great divisions of land of the Earth
the countries of Europe except for Great Britain and Ireland
likely but not certain to happen; possible
not logically necessary, especially empirical
unpredictable; intended for use in circumstances not completely foreseen
dependent on or conditioned by something else
not necessitated; determined by free choice
e.g. plan for contingent expenses
Payment is contingent on fulfillment of certain conditions.
to twist in a violent manner
e.g. features contorted with fury
to twist out of the true meaning or proportion, or natural, normal, or original shape or condition
e.g. distorted facts
a face distorted by pain
The new lighting distorted colors.
marked by repeated twists, bends, or turns; winding
marked by devious or indirect tactics; crooked, tricky
e.g. a tortuous path/conspiracy
the tortuous jargon of legal forms
illegal or prohibited traffic in goods; smuggling
goods or merchandise whose importation, exportation, or possession is forbidden; also smuggled goods
to go or act contrary to; violate
to oppose in argument; contradict
e.g. contravene a law
contravene a proposition
feeling or showing sorrow and remorse for a sin or shortcoming
e.g. a contrite criminal/apology
sorrow for one's sins
the act of rubbing together; friction; also the act of wearing or grinding down by friction
the act of weakening or exhausting by constant harassment, abuse, or attack
a reduction in numbers usually as a result of resignation, retirement, or death
e.g. Attrition has led to the main mechanism's breaking.
a war of attrition
Attrition is high among social worker because of the difficult work and poor pay.
to pulverize and comminute thoroughly by rubbing or grinding
to form or create in an artistic of ingenious manner
to bring about by stratagem or with difficulty; manage
e.g. contrive ways of handling the situation
contrive household utensils from stone
He contrived a meeting with the president.
having an unnatural or false appearance or quality; artificial, labored
e.g. The movie's contrived ending was a big disappointment.
to dispute or oppose by reasoning
e.g. The attorney offered evidence that controverted the plaintiff's allegations.
Ever since the poem was first published, critics and scholars have controverted over the meaning of its concluding line.
to give substance or form to; embody
to establish by proof or competent evidence; verify
e.g. substantiate a charge
stubbornly disobedient; rebellious
e.g. The judge threatened to charge the contumacious witness with contempt of the court.
a riddle whose answer is or involves a pun
a question or problem having only a conjectural answer; an intricate and difficult problem
e.g. the conundrum of how an ancient people were able to build such massive structures without the benefit of today's knowledge and technology
to recover health and strength gradually after sickness or weakness
e.g. the long months that the soldier spent in the hospital slowly convalescing from his leg injuries
an unaccented beat or portion of a beat inn a musical measure
e.g. an offbeat sense of humor
an offbeat approach to teaching
having knowledge or experience (used with with)
e.g. conversant in several languages
conversant with the customs of foreign cultures
to exchange thoughts and opinions in speech; talk
something reversed in order, relation, or action
to bear from one place to another, especially to move in a continuous stream or mass
to impart or communicate by statement, suggestion, gesture, or appearance
e.g. The singer was conveyed from her hotel to the airport by limousine.
struggling to convey his feelings
to find or prove to be guilty
to convince of error or sinfulness
the person convicted of and under sentence of a crime
e.g. The jury convicted them on three counts of fraud.
a warning that the three escaped convicts were armed and dangerous
the act or process of convicting
a strong persuasion or belief
to supply (as provisions) usually as a matter of business
e.g. a shop purveying handmade merchandise
the action of conveying
an instrument by which title to property is conveyed
a means of transport; vehicle
e.g. The covered wagon was the major conveyance that transported settlers and their belongings across the frontier.
relating to, occupied with, or fond of feasting, drinking, and good company
e.g. a convivial gathering
The hiking club attracts a wide range of convivial people who share a love of the outdoors.
to call together to a meeting
e.g. The assembly was convoked for a special session.
to petition for help or support
to call forth by incantation; conjure
to make an earnest request for; solicit
to put into effect or operation; implement
bring about; cause
e.g. He invoked the memory of his predecessor.
She invoked history to prove her point.
He invoked his Fifth Amendment privileges.
having convolutions; twisted and curved
e.g. a convoluted explanation that left the listeners even more confused than they were before
to shake or agitate violently, especially to shake with or as if with irregular spasms
e.g. The patient reacted to the medication and began convulsing.
The country was convulsed by war.
e.g. The Russian Revolution was of the major convulsions of the 20th century.
a cage or small enclosure (as for poultry); also a small building for housing poultry
a confined area; jail
e.g. Like many of the city's hookers, she was back in the coop within a week of her release.
to be uncooperative, obstructive, or evasive
e.g, They stonewalled until they could come up with a response.
They're trying to stonewall the media.
yielding something abundantly; plentiful in number
full of thought, information, or matter; profuse or exuberant in words, expression, or style
e.g. copious references to other writers
a copious talker
having a large estate or property; wealthy
amply or plentifully provided or fashioned often to the point of ostentation
e.g. an opulent upper crust that liked to show off its possessions
living in opulent comfort
a unit of wood cut for fuel equal to s tack of 4x4x8 feet or 128 cubic feet
an ornamental cord or ribbon; stringcourse
a line of troops or of military posts enclosing an area to prevent passage
a line of persons or objects around a person or place
e.g. A cordon of police kept protesters away from the building.
a curved goat's horn overflowing with fruit and ears of grain that is used as a decorative motif emblematic of abundance
an inexhaustible store; abundance
e.g. a cornucopia of wonderful stories
the act of ceremony of crowning a sovereign or the sovereign's consort
formed into an association and endowed by law with the rights and liabilities of an individual; incorporated
of or relating to a corporation
having qualities (as commercialism or lack of originality) associated with large corporations or attributed to their influence or control
of, relating to, or formed into a unified body of individuals
e.g. reorganize the corporate structures
corporate rock music/art
Human law arises by the corporate action of a people.
having, consisting of, or relating to a physical material body
not spiritual; not immaterial or intangible, substantial
e.g. the corporeal nature of matter
corporeal cravings such as hunger and thirst
a minute particle
a living cell, especially one (as a red or white blood cell or a cell in cartilage or bone) or aggregated into continuous tissues
a pen or enclosure for confining or capturing livestock
an enclosure made with wagons for defense of an encampment
to enclose in a corral
e.g. corralling votes for the upcoming election
corralled a scaterring of stray pens and quickly stuffed them in the drawer to tidy the desk
a hard material formed on the bottom of the sea by the skeletons or small creatures
fitting, conforming (used with with or to)
one who communicates with another by letter; one who has regular commercial relations with another
one who contributes news or commentary to a publication or a radio or television network
e.g. The outcome was entirely correspondent with my wishes.
a war correspondent
to support with evidence or authority; make more certain
e.g. The witness corroborated the policeman's testimony.
having an invigorating effect (used of a medicine)
to form or shape into wrinkles or folds into alternating ridges and grooves; furrow
an anatomical fold or wrinkle
full of wrinkles
e.g. rugose cheeks
adulterated or debased by change from an original or correction condition
e.g. a corrupt version of the text
belonging to the earliest period or state; original
not spoiled, corrupted, or polluted (as by civilization); pure
e.g. the hypothetical pristine lunar atmosphere
a pristine forest
used books in pristine condition
a cosmopolitan person or organism; cosmopolite
having worldwide rather than limited or provincial scope or bearing; having wide international sophistication
composed of persons, constituents, or elements from all or many parts of the world
found in most parts of the world and under varied ecological conditions
e.g. As someone who had lived in Paris for a year as an exchange student, she seemed very much the cosmopolitan to her old classmates.
Greater cultural diversity has led to a more cosmopolitan attitude among the town's younger generations.
the cosmopolitan taste of the store's customers
a cosmopolitan herb
a cosmopolitan city
e.g. a sprawling cosmopolitan where ambitious people from all over come to make their fortune
to treat as a pet; to give (someone) a lot of (often too much of) care and attention
e.g. The hotel cossets its guests with friendly service.
a cosseted childhood
an intimate and often exclusive group of persons with a unifying common interest or purpose
e.g. her coterie of fellow musicians
having the same or coincident boundaries
coextensive in scope or duration
e.g. a voting district coterminous with the city
Her partnership was more or less coterminous with Broadway's golden age.
an experience of life coterminous with the years of his father
calm expression; mental composure; look, expression
bearing or expression that offers approval or sanction; moral support
e.g. a pleasant countenance that puts visitors at ease
e.g. Experiencing a moment of unusual continence, I refrained from returning her gratuitous insult.
a weight that balances another
a force or influence that offsets or checks an opposing force
e.g. Charitable giving is usually a good counterbalance to self-indulgence.
made in imitation of something else with intent to deceive; forged
insincere, feigned; imitation
e.g. counterfeit money
The will as well as the other documents turned out to be counterfeits.
an expert at counterfeiting money
to revoke (a command) by a contrary order
to recall or order back by a superceding contrary order
e.g. Orders to blow up the bridge were countermanded.
one of the two corresponding copies of a legal instrument; duplicate
something that completes or fits perfectly
one having the same function or characteristics as another
e.g. The secretary of defense met with his counterparts in Asia to discuss the nuclear crisis.
a brilliant, sudden, and usually highly successful stroke or act
e.g. Winning that big contract was a real coup.
to seek to gain or achieve
allure, tempt; to act so as to invite or provoke
to seek the affections of, especially to seek to win a pledge or marriage from
e.g. court power
college teams courting high school basketball stars
The couple courted for two years before marrying.
a usually formal, solemn, and binding agreement; contract
to promise by a covenant; pledge
to enter into a covenant; contract
e.g. an international covenant on human rights
The home buyers had to covenant that they would restore and keep the house for at least 10 years in exchange for a low mortgage rate.
not openly shown, engaged in, or avowed; veiled
e.g. a covert military operation
to wish for earnestly
e.g. His religion warns against coveting material goods.
to destroy the resolve or courage of; also to bring to a state or an action by intimidation (used with into)
e.g. a sharp glare that cowed the child into being quiet
to shrink away or crouch, especially for shelter from something that menaces, domineers, or dismays
e.g. They cowered at the sight of the gun.
shrinking from contact or familiarity; marked by cute, coquettish, or artful playfulness
showing reluctance to make a definite commitment
e.g. using coy tricks to attract attention
a coy response
to deceive, win over, or induce to do something by artful coaxing and wheedling or shrewd trickery
to gain by cozening someone
e.g. cozened scores of people into believing by persuading them to hand over funds
cozened his supper out of the old couple
to make sullen; sour
to complain about peevishly
e.g. Old age has crabbed his nature.
He always crabs about the weather.
marked by a forbidding moroseness
difficult to read or understand
e.g. a crabbed view of human nature
given to fretful fussiness; readily angered when opposed; crotchety
marked by eccentricity
full of twists and turns
working erratically; unpredictable
e.g. his bizarre and cranky mix of ideas and beliefs
a cranky road
a cranky old tractor
gross, having or indicating such grossness of mind as precludes delicacy and discrimination
being beneath one's dignity
used as a pejorative intensifier
guided by or indicative of base or materialistic values
e.g. crass concerns of daily life
crass measures of success
a loudmouthed jerk given to rude jokes and crass comments
a bowl-shaped cavity at the mouth of a volcano
a pit made by an exploding bomb
a band or scarf worn around the neck
lacking the least bit of courage; contemptibly fainthearted
e.g. a craven refusal to deliver the unwelcome news personally
a line, mark, or ridge made by or as if by folding a pliable substance
to make a crease in or on; wrinkle
to wound slightly especially by grazing
e.g. tiny creases at the corners of his eyes
She looked up, her face creasing into a smile.
a mental acceptance as true or real; credibility
e.g. The theory is gaining credence among scientists.
I'm afraid I don't put much credence in common gossip.
ready to believe especially on slight or uncertain evidence
proceeding from credulity
e.g. accused of swindling credulous investors
a basket that is used for carrying fish that have just been caught
a gradual increase
the peak of a gradual increase; climax
e.g. Complaints about stifling smog conditions reach a crescendo.
Their divorce was merely the formal crescendo of marital stress and estrangement.
having a dropping crest or hanging head
feeling ashamed or humiliation; dejected
to draw in or contract one's muscles involuntarily (as from cold or pain)
to shrink in fear or servility
to behave in an excessively humble or servile way
to recoil in distaste
e.g. Americans cringed at the use of the term now.
one who speaks or write in defense of someone or something
to make a deep harsh sound; to speak in a hoarse throaty voice
to mutter in discontent; grumble
partiality to cronies especially as evidenced in the appointment of political hangers-on to office without regard to their qualifications
bend; curve, wind
e.g. The road suddenly crooked to the left.
the crook of his arm
the quality or state of being crude
something that is crude
e.g. the crudity of the drawing
The movie's crudities were supposed to be funny, but they didn't make me laugh.
to press, bend, or crush out of shape; rumple
to cause to collapse
to contract into wrinkles
e.g. She crumpled the piece of paper into a ball.
At the sight of blood, he crumpled to the floor.
a remedial enterprise undertaken with zeal and enthusiasm
e.g. a grassroots crusade for spending more money on our public schools
to support on crutches; pop up
e.g. He used liquor as a psychological crutch.
a puzzling or difficult problem; an unsolved question
an essential point requiring resolution or resolving an outcome
a main or central feature (as of an argument)
e.g. The crux of the problem is that the school's current budget is totally inadequate.
a young carnivorous mammal; a young shark
a young person; apprentice
e.g. the kind of big story that can propel a cub reporter into the stratosphere of the newspaper world
the action of culminating
culminating position; climax
e.g. an acting performance that was seen as the culmination of a brilliant career on the stage
meriting condemnation or blame especially as wrong or harmful
e.g. culpable for the accident
to clear from alleged fault or guilt
formal religious veneration; worship
e.g. Long after it had gone off the air, the TV series continued to have a huge cult.
to improve by labor, care, or study
to seek the society of; make friends with
e.g. cultivate the mind
cultivate the arts