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Flashcards in Cardio High Yield Deck (113):
1

Bulbus cordis gives rise to...

Smooth parts (outflow tract) of left and right ventricles

2

Primitive pulmonary vein gives rise to....

smooth part of left atrium

3

What heart defect is seen in Kartagener syndrome?

Dextrocardia

Defect in Left-right dynein

4

What causes the close of foramen ovale shortly after birth?

increase in LA pressure

5

"failure of septum premum and septum secundum to close"

Patent foramen ovale

6

Aortic and pulmonary valves are derived from...

endocardial cushions of outflow tract

7

Mitral/ tricuspid valves are derived from...

Fused endocardial cushions of the AV canal

8

What is the urachus?

Part of allantoic duct between bladder and umbilicus

9

What does the umbilical vein become?

Ligamentum teres hepatis

10

MAP equation?

MAP= 2/3DP + 1/3SP

MAP= CP x TPR

11

Pulse pressure equation?

PP= SP- DP

12

Relationship between PP and stroke volume?

Directly related!

13

How does digitalis increase contractility?

Blocks Na/ K pump--> increased intracellular Na--> decrease Na/Ca exchange--> increased intracellular Ca

14

4 factors leading to myocardial oxygen demand?

Increased contractility

increased afterload

increased heart rate

increased diameter of ventricle (wall tension)

15

Name 2 drugs that decreased afterload?

ACEi and vasodilators (ex: hydralazine)

16

Resistance of vessels in series/.

TR= R1 + R2 + R3...

17

Resistance of vessels in parallel?

1/TR= 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3...

18

How does inspiration affect venous return?

increases venous return due to drop in intrathoracic pressure

19

What is normal splitting of heart sounds?

delayted closure of Pulmonic valve during inspiration

20

What is wide splitting?

RV delayed empyting that causes an exaggeration of normal splitting

21

What is fixed splitting?

Seen in L--> R shunts that increase RA and RV volumes and delays closure of pulmonic vlaves in inspiration and ezpiration at teh same ratio

22

What is paradoxical splitting?

delayed aortic valve closure!

23

When/ where do you hear aortic stenosis murmur?

Systole...Aortic area

24

When/ where do you hear aortic valve sclerosis?

Systole...aortic area

25

When/ where do you hear pulmonic stenosis murmur?

systole...pulmonic area

26

When/ where do you hear tricupsid stenosis murmur?

diastole...tricuspid area

27

When/ where do you hear mitral stenosis murmur?

diastole...mitral area

28

When/ where do you hear mitral regurgitation mumur?

Systole...mitral area

29

When/ where do you hear do you hear tricuspid regurgitation murmur?

pansystolic murmur...tricuspid area

30

"AD inherited long QT" syndrome

Romano Ward Syndrome

31

"AR inherited long QT syndrome and sensorineural deafness"

Jervell and Lange- Nielsen syndrome

32

"AD disorder in asian males that shows RBBB and ST elevtion in V1-V3"

Brugada Syndrome

33

"abnormal fast accessory conduction pathway from atria to ventricle bypassing the rate slowing AV node. delta wave is a common finding"

Wolf- Parkinson- White Syndrome

34

"sawtooth" pattern on EKG?

Atrial flutter

35

Management for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter?

1- Antithrombotic
2- Rate control
3- Rhythm control
4- Cardioversion

36

"progressively lengthening PR until QRS is dropped"

Mobitz type 1 (Wenchebach) AV block

37

"randomly dropped QRS with no change in length of the PR interval"

Mobitz type II AV block

38

What type of heart block is seen in Lyme disease?

3rd degree AV block

39

How does ANP act?

Through cGMP to cause vasodilation

40

What releases ANP and what releases BNP?

ANP= atrial monocytes

BNP= ventricular monocytes

41

Peripheral chemoreceptorss respond to...

decreased PO2, increased PCO2, and decreased pH

42

Central chemoreceptors responds to...

Left ventrcle

43

Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure can estimate...

Left ventricle pressure

44

4 main factors determining autoregulation of the heart?

Adenosine, Na and CO2 and decreased O2

45

What can cause vasoconstriction of the lungs?

Hypoxia

46

5 metabolites that determine autoregulation of skeletal muscle during exercise?

Lactate, adenosine, K+, H+, and CO2

47

"lack of aorticopulmonary septum formation"

presistent truncus arteriosus

48

"failure of aorticopulmonary septum to spiral"

transposition of great vessels

49

What exposure is transposition of great vessels associated with?

Maternal diabetes

50

Persistent truncus arteriosis is associated with...

22q11 syndromes

51

Alcohol exposure is associated with which congenital cardiac defect...

VSD, ASD, PDA and tetralolgy of Fallot

52

In order for survivial what does tricuspid atresia require?

ASD and VSD

53

Down syndrome is associated with what congenital cardiac defects?

AV septal defect, VSD, ASD

54

"hardening of arteries with small wall thickening and loss of elasticity"

Arteriosclerosis

55

Name the 2 types of arteriolosclerosis:

Hyaline--> essential HTN and diabetes mellitus

Hyperplastic--> severe HTN

56

"calcification of elastic lamina of medium sized arteries"

Moncheberg (medial calcific sclerosis)

57

"disease of elastic arteries and large- and medium- sized muscular arteries caused by build up oc cholesterol plaqus"

atherosclerosis

58

Thoracic aortic aneurysm is associted with...

HTN, bicuspid aortic valve, Marfan, Tertiary Syphilis

59

"intraluminal tear in the aorta"

aortic dissection

60

What is stable angina usually due to?

atherosclerosis

61

What is variant (Prinzmetal) angina usually due to?

Secondary to coronary vasospasm

62

What are some triggers of variant (prinzmetal) angina?

Tobaccco, cocaine, triptans

63

Most common cause of myocaridal infarction?

Rupture of coronary artery atherosclerotic plaque

64

Which shows ST elevation...transmural infarction or subendocardial infarction?

Transmural only

65

EKG leads with ST elevations in LAD/ anteroseptal infarct?

V1-V2

66

EKG leads with ST elevations in distal LAD/ anteroapical infarct?

V3-V4

67

EKG leads with ST elevations in LAD/ LCX/ anterolateral infarct?

V5-V6

68

EKG leads with ST elevations in lateral/ LCX infarct?

I, aFL

69

EKG leads with ST elevations in inferior/ RCA infarct?

II, III, aVF

70

What is dressler syndrome?

Autoimmune phenomenon resulting in fibrinous pericarditis (several weeks post-MI)

71

When is a friction rub seen Post MI?

1-3 days

72

When is free wall rupture and cardiac tamponade seen post MI?

3-14 days

73

What is the most common cardiomyopathy?

dilated cardiomypathy

74

What is the main problem in dilated cardiomyopathy?

systolic dysfunction

75

Which type of cardiomyopathy is associated with friedreich ataxia?

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

76

Which type of cardiomyopathy leads to sudden death in young athletes?

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

77

What is the main problem in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

Systolic dysfunction (because marked ventricular hypertrophy)

78

What causes restrictive/ inflitratie cardiomyopathy?

sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, fibrosis

79

3 signs of Left heart failure?

Orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, pulmonary edema

80

3 signs of right heart failure?

hepatomegaly (nutmeg liver), Jugular venous distention, peripheral edema

81

Main change in hypovolemic shock?

Decreased Preload

82

Main problem in cardiogenic shock?

decreased CO

83

Main problem in disributive shock?

Decreased SVR (afterload)

84

"small, painless erythematous lesions on the palm or sole of feet seen in endocarditis"

janeway lesions

85

"small, painless erythematous lesions on the palm or sole of feet seen in endocarditis"

Janeway lesions

86

Heart valves preferred by S. aureus?

tricuspid

87

What valves does viridans streptococci prefer?

congenitally abnormal or diseased valves

88

Organism that can cause endocarditis in colon cancer?

S. bovis

89

Valve preferred by Libman-Sacks endocarditis in Lupus?

Mitral valve

90

Heart valves preferred by S. pyogenes in rheumatic heart disease?

Mitral aortic >> tricuspid

91

What type of hypersensitivity is rheumatic fever?

Type II hypersensitivity

92

What is the treatment for rheumatic heart disease?

Penicillin

93

What are antischkow cells?

enlarged macrophages with ovoid, wavy rod like nucleus

94

What is beck triad? What is it associated wth?

hypotension + distended neck veins + distant heart sounds

seen in cardiac tamponade

95

Location of myxomas?

Left atria

Mainly seen inadults

96

Location of cardiac rhabdomyomas?

Ventricle

Seen in children

97

"increase in JVP on inspiration"

Kussmaul sign

98

What are 3 causes of kussmaul sign?

1- Constrictve pericarditis

2- restrictive cardiomyopathy

3- R atrial or ventricular tumors

99

"benign capillart hemangioma of the elderly"

Cherry hemangioma

100

"cavernous lymphangioma of the neck associated with turner syndrome"

cystic hygroma

101

"polypoid capillary hemangioma that can ulcerate and bleed"

pyogenic granuloma

102

"benign capillary hemangioma of infancy"

strawberry hemangioma

103

How is Raynaud's treated?

Ca channel blockers

104

"Temporal artery headache, blindess, granulomatous inflammation"

Temporal (giant cell) arteritis

105

"Pulseless disease, feverm skin nodules, ocular disturbances, granulomatous thickening and narrowing of aortic arch"

Takayasu arteritis

106

"necrotizing vasculitis involving real and visceral vessels, string of pearls, immune complex mediated"

Polyarteritis nodosa

107

"asian children, conjunctival injection, rash, strawberry tong, hand and foot changes, possible coronary artery aneurysm"

Kawasaki disease

108

"asian children, conjunctival injection, rash, strawberry tong, hand and foot changes, possible coronary artery aneurysm"

Kawasaki disease

109

"intermittent claudication that can lead to gangrene and autoamputation of digits"

Buerger disease (thromboangiitis obliterans)

110

""perforation of nasal septum, chronic sinusitis, hemoptysis, hematuria focal necrotizing vasculitis and necrotizing granulomas in the lungs, cANCA"

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegeners)

111

"pANCA, necrotizing vasculitis without granulomas and no nasopharyngeal involvement"

Microscopic polyangiitis

112

"astham, sinusitis, slin noduels, purpura, pANCA, granuomas necrotizing vasculitis, increased IgE"

Churg- Strauss

113

"most common childhood systemic vasculitis, palpable purpura on butt and legs, arthalgias, GI pain, IgA immune complex deposition"

Henoch- Schonlein

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