Cardio Pharm High Yield Flashcards Preview

Step 1 Review > Cardio Pharm High Yield > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardio Pharm High Yield Deck (50):
1

4 types of drugs used to HTN in heart failure?

Diuretics

ACEi/ ARB

Beta bloclers

Aldosterone antagonisits

2

4 drugs to be used in HTN with diabetes mellitus?

ACEi/ ARB

Ca channel blocker

Thiazide diurects

Beta blocers

3

4 Drugs to be used in HTN of pregnancy?

Hydralazine

Labetalol

Methyldopa

Nifedipine

4

Name the major dihydropyridine Calcium channel blocker?

Amlodipine, nifedipine

5

Name the 2 non-dihydropyridine CCBs?

Diltiazem and verapamil

6

Mechanism of CCBs?

decreased contractility of the heart

7

Treatment for subarachnoid hemorrhage?

nimodipine (CCB)

8

3 main uses of dihydropyridine CCBs?

HTN, angina, Raynaud

9

3 Major uses of nondihydropridine CCBs?

HTN, angina, A. fib/ flutter

10

AE of amlodipine?

gingival hyperplasia

11

AE of nondihydropiridine CCBs?

Constipation, AV block, cardiac depression

12

Mechanism of Hydralazine?

increased cGMP to vasodilate (arterioles> veins) leading to afterload reduction

13

AE of hydralazine?

SLE like syndrome, fluid retention, compensatory tachycardia

14

Mechanism of nitroprusside?

increased cGMP to vasodilate (arterioles + veins) leading to afterload reduction

15

Main AE of nitroprusside treatment?

cyanide toxicity

16

2 drugs used in hypertensive emergencies?

Nitroprusside and fenoldapam

17

How do nitrates work?

vasodilation by increased NO--> increase in cGMP and smooth muscle relaxation

dilates veins >>> arteries (decreased preload)

18

"monday disease"

development of tolerance to NO during the workweek due to industrial exposure and then loss of tolerance over the weekend

Tachycardia, dizziness, headache upon reesposure

19

Name 3 endogenous substances that increase release of NO?

ACh, bradykinin, 5HT

20

Name 3 endogenous substances that increase release of NO?

ACh, bradykinin, 5HT

21

Mechanism of cholestrymine?

Bile acid resins:
prevent intestinal reabsorption of bile acids (so liver must make more cholesterol)

22

What is the mechanism of ezetimibe?

prevent cholesterol absorption at small intestine brush border

23

AE of ezetimibe?

increased LFTs and diarrhea

24

what does ezetimibe decrease?

LDL

25

What do fibrates decrease?

TG!!

26

Mechanism of fibrates?

Activates PPAR to induce HDL synthesis

upregulates LPL

27

AE of fibrantes?

myopathy and cholesterol gallstones

28

Mechanism of niacin?

inhibits lipolysis in adipose tissue and reduces hepatic VLDL synthesis

29

What are the main AE of digoxin *cardiac glycosides)?

Cholinergic (N/V/D, blurry yellow vision), arrhythmias, AV block

Hyperkalemia

30

What can predispose to digoxin toxicity?

renal failure, hypokalemia, verapamil, amiodarone, quinidine

31

Why is hypokalemia a risk factor for digoxin toxicitity?

Because K+ and digoxin both bind the same spot...so when there is low K+ digoxin can bind more

32

What is the treatment for digoxin toxicity?

Slowly normalize K+, cardiac pacer, antidigoxin Fab fragments, Mg2+

33

Name 2 class IIa antiarrhythmics?

quinidine and procainamide

34

What are 3 major AEs of quinidine and procainamide?

1- SLE like (P)

2- cinchonism (Q)

3- TdP (increased QT interval)

35

What is quinidine and procainamide used for?

Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias (SVT and VT)

36

Name 2 class IIb antiarrhythmics?

Lidocaine and mexiletine

Phenytoin

37

Use of lidocaine and mexiletine?

acyte ventricular arrhythmias, digitalis induced arrhythmias

POST MI!!

38

What type of tissue does lidocaine and mexiletine preferrentially affect?

preferentially affects ischemic or depolarizated purkinje and ventricular tissue

39

Name 2 class Ic antiarrhythmics?

Flecainde and propafenone

40

AE of flecainide and propafenone?

Arrhythmia!

41

Mechanism by which class II antiarrhymics work?

Beta blockers--> decreased SA and AV node activity by decreasee cAMP and decrease Ca currents

42

Name the class III antiarrhythmics (K channel blockers)?

Amiodarone, Sotalol

43

Use of amiodarone and sotalol?

Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter

Ventricular tachycardia

44

AE of sotalol?

TdP, excessive beta blockade

45

AE of amiodarone?

Pulmonary fibrosis Hepatotoxicity
Hypothyroidism/ hyperthyroidism
Corenal deposits
Blue/ gray skin

46

Problem with amiodarone?

Extensive tissue binding....LONG half life

47

Name the class IV antiarrhythmics?

Verapamil and diltiazem

48

Use of verapamil and diltiazem?

prevention of nodal arrhythmias, and rate control in a fib

49

DOC for diagnosing and abolishing SVT?

adenosine

50

Use of Mg2+?

Effective in TdP and Digoxin toxicity

Decks in Step 1 Review Class (62):