Ophthalmology High Yield Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ophthalmology High Yield Deck (37):
1

"eye to short for refractive power of cornea and lense--> light focused behind the retina"

hyperopia

2

"Eye too long for refractive pwer of cornea and lens--> light focued in front of retina"

Myopia

3

"abnormal curvature of the cornea"

astigmatism

4

"collects aqueous humor from trabecular meshwork"

Canal of Schlemm

5

"collects aqueous humor that flows through the anterior chamber"

Trabecular meshwork

6

"produces aqueous humor"

Ciliary epithelium

7

Ciliary epithelium are under what autonomic control?

Beta

8

What causes cataracts in diabetics?

sorbitol

9

"optic disc atrophy with characteristic cupping, and elevated IOP"

Glaucoma

10

What causes primary closed angle glaucoma?

Lens pushes up against iris--> obstruction of aqueous humor flow

11

What HLA type can uveitis be associated with?

HLA- B27

12

"loss of central vision"

macular degeneration

13

How can dry macular degeneration be prevented?

multivitamin and antioxidant supplements

14

What causes we macular degeneration?

bleeding secondary to choroidal neovascularization--> treat with anti-VEGF

15

Difference between non proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy?

proliferative--> damaged capillaries leak blood

nonproliferative--> new blood vessel formation due to chronic hypoxia

16

What is retinal detachment?

separation of neurosensory layer of retina (photoreceptor layer with rods and cones) from outermost pigmented epithelium

17

What are the preceeding signs and symptoms of retinal detachment?

flashes and floaters, "curtain drawn down vision

18

Describe the vision loss associated with central retinal artery occlusion?

acute painless monocular vision loss

19

"inherited progressive, painless vision loss beginning with night blindness"

retinitis pigmentosa

20

"optic swelling due to increased ICP, blurred margins"

Papilledema

21

Constriction of the pupil is under what type of control?

parasympathetic...M3

22

What is the path of the pupillary light reflex?

CNII--> Pretectal nuclei--> EW- nucleus--> oculomotor nerve contracts pupil

23

What is the path of the pupillary light reflex?

CNII--> Pretectal nuclei--> EW- nucleus--> oculomotor nerve contracts pupil

24

Horner syndrome is associated with a lesion at what level of the spinal cord?

T1 or above

25

"Ptosis + anhidrosis + miosis"

Horner syndrome

26

How do you test the IO muscle?

Look up

27

How do you test the SO?

Look ti the opposite direction of the you are trying to test

28

"blown pupil with a down and out gaze"

CN III damage

29

"eye moves upwards with contralateral gaze and head tilts to side of teh lesion"

CN IV damage

30

"medially adducted eye that cannot be abducted"

CN VI damage

31

Anopia?

loss of vision in one eye

32

"left upper wuadrantic anopia"

right temporal lesion, MCA

33

"left lower quadrantic anopia"

right parietal lesion, MCA

34

"left hemianopia with macular sparing"

PCA infarct

35

What is meyer's loop?

loops around the inferior horn of the ventral ventricle in the temporal lobe

36

What is Dorsal optic radiation?

Shortest path taken (via internal capsule)

37

What is the MLF?

allows for crosstalk between CN VI and CN III to coordinate horizontal direction

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