Renal Path High Yield Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Renal Path High Yield Deck (78):
1

Nephritic/ nephrotic/ both?

FSGN

Nephrotic

2

Nephritic/ nephrotic/ both?

MPGN

Nephritic

3

Nephritic/ nephrotic/ both?

Amyloidosis

Nephrotic

4

Nephritic/ nephrotic/ both?

Minimal change disease?

Nephrotic

5

Nephritic/ nephrotic/ both?

Alport syndrome

Nephritic

6

Nephritic/ nephrotic/ both?

PSGN

Nephritic

7

Nephritic/ nephrotic/ both?

RPGN

Nephritic

8

Nephritic/ nephrotic/ both?

Membranous nephropathy

Nephrotic

9

Nephritic/ nephrotic/ both?

Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis

Both

10

Nephritic/ nephrotic/ both?

IgA nephropathy (berger disease)

Nephritic

11

"subepithelial immune complex humps"

PSGN

12

What type of hypersensitivity is PSGN?

Type III

13

"peripheral and periorbital edema, cola colored urine, HTN"

PSGN

14

"crescent moon shape on light micropscopy"

RPGN

15

What do cresents consit of in RPGN?

Fibrin and plasma protein with macrophages, and monocytes

16

What 3 diseases can lead to RPGN?

Goodpasture
Wegeners
Microscopic polyangiitis

17

What can lead to DPGN (diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis)?

SLE and MPGN

18

How does DPGN appear on IF?

Granular

19

How does IgA nephropathy loop on LM and EM?

Mesangial proliferation and deposits

20

"episodic hematuria with RBC casts"

IgA nephropathy

21

"mtation in type IV collagen leading to thinning and splitting of glomerular basement membrane"

Alport syndrome

22

What are the 2 types of MPGN?

Type I: subendothelial immune complex deposits with granular IF

Type II: intramembranous IC deposits (dense deposits)

23

"segmental sclerosis and hyalinosis nonselfic for focal deposits of IgM, C3 and C1"

FSGS

24

Is there immune complex deposition in FSGS?

NOPE!

25

"effacement of foot processes, most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children:

Minimal change disease

26

Treatment for MCD?

Corticosteroids

27

What race is FSGS common in/

African americans and hispanics

28

"spike and dome appearance on EM"

Membranous nepropathy

29

What race is membranous nephropathy common in?

Caucasian

30

What diseaeses can lead to membranous nephropathy?

Hep B, Hep C

31

"mesangial expansion, GBM thickening, eosinophilic nodular glomerularsclerosis"

Diabetic glomerulonephropathy

32

What occurs to the efferent arterioles and the GBM in diabetic glomerulonephropathy?

Nonezymatic glycosylation

33

How is diabetic glomerulonephropathy treated?

ACEi

34

Calcium phosphate stone precipitate at what pH?

increased

35

Calcium oxalate stones precipitate at what pH?

decreased

36

Shape calcium phosphate or calcium oxalate stones?

envelope or dumbbell

37

Ammonium magnesium phosphate stones precipitate at what pH?

increased

38

"staghorn calculi"

ammonium magnesium pphosphate stones caused by urease (+) bacteria

39

Uric acid stone precipitate at what pH?

decreased pH

40

coffin lid shaped stones?

ammonium magnesium phosphate

41

rhomboid or rosette stones?

Uric acid

42

Cystine stone preceipitate at what pH?

decreased

43

Which stones are radiolucent?

Uric acid and cysteine

44

What is a possible complication of hydronephrosis?

compression and possible atrophy of renal cortex and medulla

45

What is a MAJOR risk factor for RCC?

Smoking!

46

What is the most common location of RCC?

PCT cells

47

What are 3 paraneoplastic conditions associated with RCC/

1- EPO
2- ACTH
3- PTHrP

48

What gene mutation can RCC possibly be associated with?

VHL tumor suppressor gene

49

"benign epithelial tumor of the kidney with abundent mitochondria without perinuclear clearing"

Renal pncocytoma

50

What chromosome are WT1 and WT2 located on?

Chromosome 11

51

What is WAGR?

Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary malformation, mental retardation

52

"large palpable unilateral flank mass in children (age 2-4)"

Wilms tumor

53

Painless hematuria (no casts) in older adults suggests....

bladder cancer (transitional cell carcinoma)

54

What exposures can cause transitional cell carcinoma?

1- Smoking
2- Phenacetin
3- Analine dyes
4- Cyclophosphamide

55

What are the 2 growth patterns of transitional cell carcinoma?

Flat (early p53 mutation)

Papillary

56

What causes sterile pyuria?

N. gonorrhea and Chlamydia

57

Inflammatory cells of acute phyelonephritis?

Neutrophils

58

What is found in the urine of someone with pyelonephritis?

WBC casts

59

What are 4 possible complications of acute pyelonephritis?

1- chronic pyelonephritis
2- renal papillary necrosis
3- perinephric abscess
4- urosepsis

60

What predisposes to recurrent/ chronic pyelonephritis?

Vesicoureteral reflux or chronically obstructing kidney stones

61

What is the lag time between drug exposure and drug induced interstitial nephritis?

1-2 weeks for most drugs

it can occur months later for NSAID exposure

62

What are the symptoms of drug induced interstitial nephritis?

Pyuria (eosinophils) and azotemia

63

What can cause diffuse cortical necrosis?

generalized cortical infarction--> from DIC and vasospasm

64

What is the most common cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients?

Acute tubular necrosis

65

"muddy brown casts"

acute tubular necrosis

66

What are two general causes of acute tubular necrosis?

1- ischemia
2- nephrotoxic drugs

67

BUN: Cr in acute tubular necrosis?

68

FeNa in acute tubular necrosis?

Increased

69

"sloughing of necrotic renal papillae--> gross hematuria and proteinuria"

renal papillary necrosis

70

What conditions can cause renal papillary necrosis?

Sickle cell disease
Acute pyelonephritis
NSAIDs
Diabetes mellitus

71

BUN: Cr in prerenal azotemia?

>15

72

FeNa of prerenal azotemia?

73

What are the consequences of renal failure?

MAD HUNGER

Metabolic Acidosis
Dyslipidemia
Hyperkalemia
Uremia
Na/ H20 retention
Growth retardation
Erythropoietin failure
Renal osteodystrophy

74

What is renal osteodystrophy?

failure of vitamin D hydroxylation, hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia--> secondary hyperparathyroidism

75

What chromosome is PKD1 on? PKD2?

PKD1= chromosome 16

PKD2= chromosome 4

76

What are common complications of ADPKD?

Hepatic cysts
Berry aneurysms
HTN
Mitral balbe prolapse

77

"inherited disease cauing tubulointerstitial fibrosis and progressive renal insufficiency with inability to concentrate urine"

Medullary cystic disease

78

Which has an increased risk of RCC... simple cyts or complex cysts?

Complex!

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