Behavioral Science High Yield Flashcards Preview

Step 1 Review > Behavioral Science High Yield > Flashcards

Flashcards in Behavioral Science High Yield Deck (46):
1

Define Berkson bias?

study population selected from hospital is less healthy than general population

2

What is healthy worker effect?

study population is healthier than the general population

3

What is non-responsible bias?

Participating subjects differ from nonresponders in meaningful ways

4

What is a strategy to reduce selection bias?

randomization

5

What type of studies is recall bias common in?

retrospective studies

6

What is measurement bias?

information is gathered in a way that distorts it

7

What is procedure bias?

Subjects in different groups are not treated the same

8

What is observer- expectancy bias?

Researchers belief in the efficacy of a treatment changes the outcome of tha treatment

9

What are ways to decrease procedure bias and observer expectancy bias?

Blinding!

10

What is a confounding bias?

When a factor is related to both the exposure and outcome but not ina causal way

11

Does the standard error of mean increase or decrease with increase in sample size?

Decrease

12

% in 1 SD, 2 SD and 3SD?

1= 68%
2= 95%
3= 9.7%

13

What is a positive skew?

Longer tail on right (outliers on right)

14

What is a negative skew?

Longer tail on left (outliers on left)

15

What does a null hypothesis state?

There is no relationship

16

What is alpha?

Type I error--> study shows there is a relationship when there is none inreality

17

What is beta?

Type II error--> study shows that there is no relationship when there actually is one

18

What can decrease Type II error?

Increase power!

Increase sample size
Increased expected effected size
Increase precision of measurement

19

What is alpha usually set to?

P

20

What is the equation for statistical power?

Power= 1-beta

21

Equation for confidence interval?

CI= mean +/- Z

Z= SEM

SEM= Standard deviation/ square root of sample size

22

What is the Z for a 95% CI?

1.96

23

What is the Z for a CI of 99%?

2.58

24

T/F" If 95% CI for a mean difference between 2 variables includes 0 then there is no significant differents

True

Null hypothesis is not rejected

25

T/F: If the 95% for odds ratio or relative risk includes 1

True

26

T/F: If the CI's between 2 groups overlap the there is no significant difference exists

True

27

"Checks differences between means of 2 groups"

T test

28

"chects difference between means of 3 or more groups"

ANOVA

29

"checks difference between 2 or more percentages or proportions of categorical outcome (not means)"

Chi squared test

30

"checks difference between 2 or more percentages or proportions of categorical outcome (not means)"

Chi squared test`

31

Order of surrogate decision makers?

Spouse> adult children> parents> adult sibling > other relative

32

What is APGAR?

Appearance
Pulse
Grimace
Activity
Respirations

33

What is a good APGAR score?

7 or above

34

How is low birthweight defined?

35

What are 4 possible complications of low birth weight?

1- RDS
2- Necrotizing enterocolitis
3- Intraventricular hemorrhage
4- Persistent fetal circulation

36

When does each of the following reflexes disappear?

Moro
Rooting
Palmar
Babinski

Moro- 3 months

Rooting- 4 months

Palmar- 6 months

Babinski- 12 months

37

Age of crawling?

8 months

38

Points to objects at what age?

12 months

39

Age of social smile?

2 months

40

Age to feed self with fork and spoon?

20 months

41

Age of parallel play?

24- 36 months

42

Age of core gender indentity formed?

36 months

43

Age of cooperative play, and imaginary friends?

4 yo

44

Suicide rate increase or decrease in the elderly?

Increase

45

What is resbycusis?

Sensorineuronal hearing loss due to destruction of hair cells at the cochlear base

Preserved low frequency hearing

46

What is presbycusis?

Sensorineuronal hearing loss due to destruction of hair cells at the cochlear base

Preserved low frequency hearing

Decks in Step 1 Review Class (62):