Flashcards in Behavioral Science High Yield Deck (46):

1

## Define Berkson bias?

### study population selected from hospital is less healthy than general population

2

## What is healthy worker effect?

### study population is healthier than the general population

3

## What is non-responsible bias?

### Participating subjects differ from nonresponders in meaningful ways

4

## What is a strategy to reduce selection bias?

### randomization

5

## What type of studies is recall bias common in?

### retrospective studies

6

## What is measurement bias?

### information is gathered in a way that distorts it

7

## What is procedure bias?

### Subjects in different groups are not treated the same

8

## What is observer- expectancy bias?

### Researchers belief in the efficacy of a treatment changes the outcome of tha treatment

9

## What are ways to decrease procedure bias and observer expectancy bias?

### Blinding!

10

## What is a confounding bias?

### When a factor is related to both the exposure and outcome but not ina causal way

11

## Does the standard error of mean increase or decrease with increase in sample size?

### Decrease

12

## % in 1 SD, 2 SD and 3SD?

###
1= 68%

2= 95%

3= 9.7%

13

## What is a positive skew?

### Longer tail on right (outliers on right)

14

## What is a negative skew?

### Longer tail on left (outliers on left)

15

## What does a null hypothesis state?

### There is no relationship

16

## What is alpha?

### Type I error--> study shows there is a relationship when there is none inreality

17

## What is beta?

### Type II error--> study shows that there is no relationship when there actually is one

18

## What can decrease Type II error?

###
Increase power!

Increase sample size

Increased expected effected size

Increase precision of measurement

19

## What is alpha usually set to?

### P

20

## What is the equation for statistical power?

### Power= 1-beta

21

## Equation for confidence interval?

###
CI= mean +/- Z

Z= SEM

SEM= Standard deviation/ square root of sample size

22

## What is the Z for a 95% CI?

### 1.96

23

## What is the Z for a CI of 99%?

### 2.58

24

## T/F" If 95% CI for a mean difference between 2 variables includes 0 then there is no significant differents

###
True

Null hypothesis is not rejected

25

## T/F: If the 95% for odds ratio or relative risk includes 1

### True

26

## T/F: If the CI's between 2 groups overlap the there is no significant difference exists

### True

27

## "Checks differences between means of 2 groups"

### T test

28

## "chects difference between means of 3 or more groups"

### ANOVA

29

## "checks difference between 2 or more percentages or proportions of categorical outcome (not means)"

### Chi squared test

30

## "checks difference between 2 or more percentages or proportions of categorical outcome (not means)"

### Chi squared test`

31

## Order of surrogate decision makers?

### Spouse> adult children> parents> adult sibling > other relative

32

## What is APGAR?

###
Appearance

Pulse

Grimace

Activity

Respirations

33

## What is a good APGAR score?

### 7 or above

34

## How is low birthweight defined?

35

## What are 4 possible complications of low birth weight?

###
1- RDS

2- Necrotizing enterocolitis

3- Intraventricular hemorrhage

4- Persistent fetal circulation

36

##
When does each of the following reflexes disappear?

Moro

Rooting

Palmar

Babinski

###
Moro- 3 months

Rooting- 4 months

Palmar- 6 months

Babinski- 12 months

37

## Age of crawling?

### 8 months

38

## Points to objects at what age?

### 12 months

39

## Age of social smile?

### 2 months

40

## Age to feed self with fork and spoon?

### 20 months

41

## Age of parallel play?

### 24- 36 months

42

## Age of core gender indentity formed?

### 36 months

43

## Age of cooperative play, and imaginary friends?

### 4 yo

44

## Suicide rate increase or decrease in the elderly?

### Increase

45

## What is resbycusis?

###
Sensorineuronal hearing loss due to destruction of hair cells at the cochlear base

Preserved low frequency hearing

46