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Flashcards in Dermatology High Yield Deck (65):
1

What are the layer os the epidermis from surface to base?

Stratum Corneum

Stratum Lucidum

Stratum Granulosum

Stratum Spinosum

Stratum Basale

2

"felt connecting ACTIN cytoskeletos of adjacent cells with Cadherins"

Tight junctions/ Zonula aderins

3

"structural support via KERATIN interactions"

Desmosome/ Macula adherens

4

"channel proteins called connexons permit electrical and chemical communication between cells"

gap junction

5

"connects keratin in basal cells to underlying basement membranes"

Hemidesmosomes

6

What cell junction is targeted in Bullous pemphigoides?

Hemidesmosomes

7

What cell junction is targeted in pemphigus vulgaris?

Desmosome

8

"prevents paracellular movement of solutes; composed of claudins and occludins"

tight junctions

9

"flat lesion with well circumscribed change in skin color"

macule

10

"macule

Patch

11

"elevated solid skin lesion

papule

12

"papule

plaque

13

"small fluid containing blister

vesicle

14

"large fluid containing blister >1cm"

bulla

15

"vesicles containing pus"

pustule

16

"transient smooth papule or plaque"

Hives

17

"flaking off of stratum corneum"

Scale--> eczema, psoriasis, SCC

18

"dry exudate"

crust

19

What is hyperkeratosis?

increased thickness of stratum corneum

20

What is parakeratosis?

hyperkeratosis with retention of nuclei in statum corneum

21

What is spongiosis?

epidermal accumulation of edematous fluid in intercellular spaces

22

What is acantholysis?

separation of epidermal cells

23

What is Acanthosis?

Epidermal hyperplasia

24

What is an example of acanthosis?

Acanthosis nigricans

25

"normal melanocyte number with decreased melanin production"

albinism

26

What is deficient or defective in albinism?

Tyrosinase enzyme

Tyrosine transport

27

"hyperpigmentation associated with pregnancy"

melasma

28

"irregular areas of complete depigmentation"

vitiligo

29

What causes vitiligo?

Autoimmune destruction of melanocytes

30

What type of hypersensitivity is atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Type I

31

"intradermal nevi vs junctional nevi"

Intradermal= papular

junctional= macular

32

What epidermal layer is increased in psoriasis and which is decreased?

increased= spinosum

decreaed= granulosum

33

what is Auspitz sign?

pinpoint bleeding spots from exposure of dermal papillae when scales are scraped off

34

"inflammatory facial skin disorder characterized by erythematous papules and pustules"

rosacea

35

"flat, greasy, pigmented squamous epithelial proliferatoin with keratin filled cysts"

Seborrheic keratosis

36

What is leser trelat sign?

sudden appearance of multiple suborrheic keratosis indicating an underlying malignancy

37

Bollous impetigo is associated with which type of infectious agent?

S. aureus

38

Common causes of cellulitis?

S. pyogenes

S. aureus

39

Infection involving the upper dermis and superficial lymphatics?

Erysipelas

40

Most common cause of abscesses?

S. aureus

41

What are bacterial causes of necrotizing fasciitis?

Anaerobic bacteria

S. pyogenes

42

What causes scalded skin syndrome?

Exotoxin destroys keratinocyte attachements in stratum granulosum

43

What type of antibody is seen in pemphigus vulgaris?

IgG antibody against desmoglein

44

Which blistering skin disorder has separation of epidermis?

pemphigus vulgaris

45

Which blistering skin disorder has tense blisters?

bullous pemphigoid

46

Which blistering condition is more severe?

pemphigus vulgaris

47

What skin disease is associated with celiac disease?

dermatitis herpetiforms

48

What is dermatitis herpetiforms?

IgA at tips of dermal papillae

49

"fever, bullae formation and necrosis, sloughing of skin, high mortality rate"

Stevens johnson reaction

50

what is acanthosis nigricans associated with?

hyperinsulinemia ad visceral malignany

51

"premalignant lesions caused by sun exposure?

actinic keratosis

52

"painful inflammatory lesions on subcutaneous fat, usually on anterior skins"

erythema nodosum

53

What conditions are associated with erythema nodosum?

Sarcoidosis
coccidiodomycosis
histoplasmosis
TB
streptococcal infections
leprosy
crohn disease

54

"sawtooth infiltrate of lymphocytes at dermal- epidermal junction"

lichen planus

55

What are the 6 P's of lichen planus?

Pruritic
Purple
Polygonal
Planar Papules
Plaques

56

What type of rays from the sun are associated with tanning? With sunburn?

UVA= tan

UVB= burn

57

"pink pearly nodules with telangiectasias and rolled borders and central/ crusting ulceration"

basal cell carcinoma

58

What is the histological feature of basal cell carcinoma?

Palisaiding carcinoma

59

What is the mosts common skin cancer?

BCC

60

What type of exposures can lead to SCC of the skin?

Arsenic, sunlight and immunosuppression

61

What is the precursor to SCC?

Actinic keratosis

62

What is the SCC varient that grows VERY quickly but then can regress over the course of months?

Keratoacanthoma

63

Tumor marker for melanoma/

S-100

64

What is the ABCDE of melanoma?

Assymetry
Border irregularity
Color variation
Diameter >6mm
Evolution over time

65

What is the mutation seen in melanoma?

BRAF kinase

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