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Flashcards in Neuro Path High Yield Deck (65):
1

Which ApoE is associated with a decreased risk of Alzheimer's disease?

ApoE2

2

Which ApoE is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease?

ApoE4

3

What are the 2 main histological findings in alzheimer's disease?

1- senile plaques (extracellular beta amyloid)

2- neurofibrillary tangles (intracellular hyperphosphorylate tau protein)

4

What chromosome is APP found on?

21!!

5

"dementia, aphasia,, change in personality, parkinson like symptoms"

Frontotemporal dementia/ Pick disease

6

Histological findings in Pick disease?

Tau protein aggregates

7

"demientia that begins with visual hallucinations adn then parkinsons features"

Lewy body dementia

8

What is the histologic pattern in Lewy body dementia?

Alpha synuclein defect

9

"autoimmune inflammation and demyelination"

Multiple sclerosis

10

HLA type assoicated with multiple sclerosis?

HLA- DR2

11

What is the classic triad of MS?

SIN

Scanning speech
Intention tremor/ Incontinence
Nystagmus

12

"multiple white matter lesions separated in space and time

multiple sclerosis

13

"inflammation and demyelination of peripheral nerves and motor fibers--> ascending paralysis"

Guillain Barre syndrome

14

What causes guillain barre after an infection?

Molecular mimicry, inocultation and stress

15

"multifocal periventricular inflammation and demyelination after infection or certain vaccinations"

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

16

AD inherited motor and sensory neuropathy due to defect production of myelin sheath or peripheral nerves"

Charcot- Marie-Tooth

17

"AR inherited lysosomal storage disease due to deficient of galactocerebrosidease"

Krabbe disease

18

What builds up in Krabbe disease?

Galactocerebroside--> destroys myelin

19

"AR inherited lysosomal storage disease due to defect in arylsulfatase A"

Metachromatic leukodystrophy

20

What builds up in metachromatic eukodystrophy?

sulfatides--> destruction of myelin sheath

21

"demyelination of CNS due to destruction of oligodendrocytes caused by JC virus"

PML

22

Most common location of partial (focal) seizure?

Medial temporal lobe

23

Difference between simple partial and complex partial seizures?

Simple--> consciousness intact

Complex--> consciousness impaired

24

Seizure characterized with quick repetitive jerks?

Myoclonic

25

"excruciating periorbital pain with lacrimation and rhinorrhea"

Cluster headaches

26

"pulsating pain with nausea, photophobia or phonophobia, due to irritation of CN V, meninges a=or blood vessel"

Migraine

27

What causes peripheral vertigo?

inner ear etiology

28

What causes central vertigo?

cerebellar or brain stem lesion

29

Which type of vertigo is associated with IMMEDIATE nystagmus is any direction?

Central vertigo

30

Which type of vertigo is associated with delayed nystagmus is any direction?

Perpheral vertigo

31

"Cafe-ai-lait spots, lisch nodules/ pigmented hamartomas, cutaenous neurofibromas, optic gliomas, pheochromocytomas"

Neurofibromatosis type I

32

Gene mutated in Neurofibromatosis type I? What chromosome is it located on?

NF1 gene--> tumor suppressor (negative regulatory of RAS

Chromosome 17

33

"hemangioblastom in retina, brain stem, cerebellum, spin, angiomatosis, bilateral renal cell carcinoma, pheochromocytoma"

von Hippel- Lindau disease

34

"HAMARTOMAS--> Hamartomas in the skin/ CNS, Angiofibromas, Mitral Regurgitation, Ash-leaf spots, cardiac Rhabdo, mental retardation, renal angiomyolipoma, seizures, shagreen patches"

Tuberous sclerosis

HAMARTOMAS

35

"port wine stain on face, ipsilateral leptomeningial angioma, seizures, intellectual disability, glaucoma, GNAQ gene, epilepsy"

Srurge- Weber Syndrome

36

Malignant brain tumor found in cerebral hemispheres?

Glioblastoma multiforme

37

What is the histological finding of glioblastoma multiforme?

"pseudopalisaiding" pleomorphic tumor cells--> border central areas of necrosis and hemorrhage

38

What is the malignant cell type of glioblastoma multiforme?

Astrocytes (GFAP +)

39

What is the malignant cell type of glioblastoma multiforme?

Astrocytes (GFAP +)

40

Where do meningiomas occur?

in convexities of hemisphers (near surfaces of brain) and parasagittal region

41

What is the histology of meningiomas?

Whorled pattern of spindle cells, psammoma bodies,

42

What is the malignant cell type of meningiomas?

arachnoid cells

43

Where are hemangioblastomas usually found?

cerebellum

44

What disease are retinal hemangioblastomas associated with?

vHL disease

45

What can hemangioblastomas secrete?

Erythropoietin--> secondary polycythemia

46

What is the histology of hemangioblastomas?

closely arranged thin walled capillaries with minimal intervening parenchyma

47

Where are schwannomas typically dound?

cerebellopontine angle

48

What is the cell marker for schwannoma?

S-100 +

49

What is a bilateral vestibular schwannoma associated with?

NF2

50

What is a calcified tumor of white matter?

oligodendroglioma

51

What are the histological findings with oligodendroglioma?

"fried egg" cells with a "chicken wire" capillary pattern

52

What are the 4 childhood tumors?

1- pilocytic astrocytoma
2- Medulloblastoma
3- ependymoma
4- craniopharygioma

53

What is the cell type of pilocytic astrocytoma? Is it benign or malignant?

Benign

Astrocytes

54

Where are pilocytic astrocytomas usually located?

posterior fossa (cerebellum)

55

Cell marker for pilocytic astrocytoma?

GRAP

56

What is the histologic findings of pilocytic astrocytoma?

Rosenthal fibers (eosinophilic, corkscrew fibers"

57

Where are medulloblastomas located?

cerebellum

58

What are the malignant cells in medulloblastoma?

Primitive neuroectodermal tumor

59

What is the histological finding of medulloblastoma?

Homer- Wright rosettes

60

How does medulloblastoma spread?

CSF....it is highly malignant and caries a poor prognosis

61

Where are ependymomas commonly found?

4th ventricle

62

Where are craniopharyngiomas located?

Near pituitary

63

What are craniopharyngiomas made of?

Epithelial remnants of rathke ouch

64

What symptoms is associated with a uncal herniation?

Compression of ipsilateral CN III--> down and out gaze

Compresses ipsilateral PCA--> contralateral homonymous hemioanopia

65

What symptoms is associated with a uncal herniation?

Compression of ipsilateral CN III--> down and out gaze

Compresses ipsilateral PCA--> contralateral homonymous hemioanopia

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