Resp Pathology High Yield Flashcards Preview

Step 1 Review > Resp Pathology High Yield > Flashcards

Flashcards in Resp Pathology High Yield Deck (64):
1

What type of hypersensitivity reaction is allergic rhinitis?

Type I

2

What is the most common location of a nose bleed (epistaxis)?

anterior segment of the nostril (Kiesselback plexus)

3

A life threatening nosebleed stems from which artery?

Sphenopalatine artery (a branch of maxillary artery

4

What are the 3 aspects of Virchow triad?

1- stasis
2- hypercoagulability
3- endothelial damage

5

Are pulmonary emboli associated with respiratory acidosis or alkalosis?

Alkalosis (due to the hypoxemia)

6

What happens to the FEV1 in obstructive lung diseases?

DECREASE

7

What happens to the FEV1/ FVC ratio in obstructive lung diseases?

DECREASED

8

"hyperplasia of mucous secreting glands in bronchi"

Chronic bronchitis

9

"enlargement of air spaces (either panacina or centriacinar) leading to decreased recoil and increased compliance"

Emphysema

10

Which type of alveolar wall destruction is associated with smoking associated emphysema?

Centriacinar

11

"increased elastase activity" can be caused by what 2 factors?

Increased production of elasetase (smoking)

OR

Decreased A1AT (regulatory to keep elastase in check)

12

"bronchial hyperresponsivenes causes reversible bronchoconstriction"

Asthma

13

"sloughed off epithelium forms whorled mucus plugs"

Asthma

14

"chronic necrotizing infection of bronchi--> perminently dilated airways"

Bronchiectasis

15

Describe the ration of FEV1/ FVC in restrictive lung diseases?

INCREASED (because FVC decreases more than FEV1)

16

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is associated with which types of hypersensitvity reaction?

Mixed Type III/ IV

17

Where is asbestos located in the lung?

Lower lobes

18

What is a found in the sputum in asbestiosis?

Golden brown asbestos bodies (fusiform rods resembiling dumbbels)

19

Where in the lungs is berylliosis located?

Upper lobes

20

Where does beryllium exposure occur?

Aerospace and manufacturing industries

21

What is black lung disease?

Coal workers pneumoconiosis (macrophages laden with carbon)

22

Where in the lungs is coal located?

Upper lobes

23

What are the lung findings in silicosis?

Fibrotic lung nodules in upper lobes

24

Where can you be exposed to silica?

Sandblasting and mines

25

What ratio is calculated to check lung maturity?

Lecithin: sphingomyelin

Mature >2

26

"diffuse alveolar damage"

ARDS

27

"intra- alveolar hyaline membranes"

ARDS

28

"while asleep, respiratory effort against airway obstruction"

OSA

29

What is normal mean pulmonary artery pressure?

10-14 mmHg

30

What gene is implicated in pulmonary arterial HTN that normally inhibits vascular smooth muscle proliferation?

BMPR2

31

What intrinsic lung diseas can lead to pulmonary HTN?

Destruction of lung parenchyma (COPD)

32

Describe the following characteristics for Pleural Effusion:

Breath Sounds
Percussio
Fremitus
Trachial deviation

Breath Sounds: D

Precussion: Dull

Fremitus: D

Deviation: Away from side of lesion

33

Describe the following characteristics for Atelectasis:

Breath Sounds
Percussio
Fremitus
Trachial deviation

Breath Sounds: D

Percussion: Dull

Fremitus: D

Trachial: toward side of lesion

34

Describe the following characteristics for simple pneumothorax:

Breath Sounds
Percussio
Fremitus
Trachial deviation

Breath Sounds: D

Percussion: hyperresonant

Fremitus: D

Trachial: --

35

Describe the following characteristics for tension pneumothorax:

Breath Sounds
Percussio
Fremitus
Trachial deviation

Breath Sounds: D

Percussion: hyperresonant

Fremitus: D

Trachial: away from side of lesion

36

Describe the following characteristics for Consolidation:

Breath Sounds
Percussio
Fremitus
Trachial deviation

Breath Sounds: bronchail breath sounds (late inspiration crackles)

Percussion: hyperresonant

Fremitus: Increased

Trachial: --

37

Are pleural effusions restrictive or obstructive?

Restrictive

38

What are transudative pleural effusions due to?

Increaed hydrostatic pressure r decreaesd oncotic pressure

39

What is exudative pleural effusion due to?

Malignancy, pneumonia, collagen vascular disease, trauma

40

What is lymphatic pleural effusion due to?

Thoracic duct injury from trauma or malignancy

41

"accumulation of air in pleural spae"

pneumothorax

42

What are 3 common bugs to cause LOBAR pneumonia?

S. pneumoiae
Legionella
Klebsiella

43

What are 4 common causes of bonchopneumonia?

S. pneumonia
S. aureus
H. influenzae
Klebsiella

44

What are 4 common causes of interstitial (atypical) pneumonia?

Viruses
Mycoplasma
Legionella
Chlamydia

45

"diffuse patchy inflammation localized to interstitial areas at alveolar walls"

interstitial pneumonia

46

"acute inflammatory infiltrate from bronchioles into adjacent alveoli"

Bronchopneumonia

47

What is the treatment for lung abscess?

Clindamycin

48

What is indicative of lung abscess on Xray?

Air fluid levels

49

What bugs commonly cause lung abscesses?

Anaerobes
S. aureus

50

What is the indicative cell finding in mesothelioma?

Psammoma bodies

51

"carcinoma that occurs at the apex of the lung"

Pancoast tumor

52

What are 2 possible complications of pancoast tumors?

1- SVC syndrome
2- Horner Syndrome

53

Aside from pancoast tumor what else can cause SCV syndrome?

thrombosis from indwelling catheter

54

Cell marker for small cell carcinoma?

Chromogranin A

55

What is the neoplastic cell in small cell?

Neuroendocrine Kulchintsky cells

56

Oncogene associated with small cell carcinoma?

myc gene

57

What mutations are seen in adenocarcinoma of the lung?

KRAS, EGFR, ALK

58

What is a marker for adenocarcinoma of the lung?

Mucin

59

What is the paraneoplastic syndrome associated with SCC of the lung?

PTHrP

60

Histological features of SCC of the lung?

Keratin pearls and intercellular bridges

61

Marker for large cell carcinoma of the lung?

beta hCG

62

What is the cell of large cell carcinoma?

Pleomorphic giant cell

63

Which lung cancer is associated with carcinoid syndrome (5-HT secretion)?

Bronchial carcinoid tumor

64

Which 2 lung cancers are of neuroendocrine origin?

small cell and Broncioal carcinoid

Decks in Step 1 Review Class (62):