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Flashcards in Repro Path High Yield Deck (103):
1

What are 4 signs of Klinefleter syndrome?

1- Testicular atrophy
2- Gynecomastia
3- Long Extremitie
4- Inactivated X chromosome (Barr Body)

2

What are the levels of the following in Klinefelter syndrome:

Inhibin
FSH
Testosterone
LH
Estrogen

Inhibitin- decreased

FSH- increased

Testosterone- decreased

LH- increased

Estrogen- increased

3

What cardiac defect is associated with turner syndrome?

Bicuspid aorta

Preductal coartication

4

What renal abnormality is assoiated with Turner syndrome?

Horseshoe kidney

5

What are the levels of the following hormones in Turner syndrome:

Estrogen
LH
FSH

Estrogen- decreased

LH- increased

FSH- increased

6

How can someone with Turner's get pregnant?

OOcyte donation and exogenous estradiol/ progesterone administration

7

How can 47, XXY result?

Nondisjunction event in mapternal meiosis II)

8

What causes female psuedohermaphroditism?

Excessive and inappropriate exposure to androgenic steroids during early gestatino

9

What causes male psuedohermaphroditism?

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

10

What deficiency results in maternal virilization during pregnancy?

Aromatase deficiency (excess testosterone because can't convert to estrogen)

11

"normal appearing female with scant sexual har, rudimentary vagina and NO Uterus or fallopian tubes"

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (46, XY)

12

"inability to convert testosterone to DHT leading to ambiguous external genitalia until puberty"

5alpha- reductase defciency

13

"defective migration of GnRH cells and formation of olfactory bulb"

Kallman Syndrome

14

Give an example of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

Kallman syndrome

15

Partial or complete mole:

46, XX or 46, XY

complete

16

Partial or complete mole:

Extremely high hCG

Complete

17

Partial or complete mole:

2 sperm in 1 egg

Partial

18

Partial or complete mole:

Enucleated egg + single sperm (that then duplicates)

Complete

19

Partial or complete mole:

Increased risk of choriocarcinoma

Complete

20

Partial or complete mole:

Fetal parts

Partial

21

Partial or complete mole:

honeycombed uterus/ snowstorm on ultrasound

Complete

22

What 4 drugs can treat gestational HTN?

1- alpha Methyldopa
2- Labetolol
3- Hydralazine
4- Nifedipine

23

What causes preeclampsia?

Abnormal placental spiral arteries--> endothelial dysfunction, vasoconstriction, ishcemia

24

What causes preeclampsia?

Abnormal placental spiral arteries--> endothelial dysfunction, vasoconstriction, ishcemia

25

"new onset HTN with either proteinuria or end organ dyfunction"

Preeclampsia

26

What is eclampsia?

Preeclampsia + maternal seizures

27

What is HELLP?

Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelets

28

What are 5 major risk factor for placental abruption?

Trauma
Smoking
Cocaine use
HTN
Preeclampsia

29

What layer of the placena is defective in placental accreta/ increta/ percreta?

Defctive decidual layer

30

"placenta prentrates into the myometrium"

Placenta increta

31

"placenta attaches to myometrium but does NOT penetrate it"

Placental accreta

32

"placenta penetrates through myometrium and INTO uterine serosa (invades uterine wall)"

Placenta percreta

33

What is placental previa?

Implantation of the placenta in a lower uterine segment

34

What is a symptom of placental previa?

Painless 3rd trimester bleeding

35

What is a vasa previa?

Fetal vessels run ver the cervical os leading to vessel rupture, exsaguniation, and fetal death

36

Painful third trimerster vaginal bleeding?

Placental abruption

37

Assoicated with Polyhydramnios or Oligohydramnios?

maternal diabetes

Polyhydramnios

38

Assoicated with Polyhydramnios or Oligohydramnios?

placental insufficiency

Polyhydramnios

39

Most common gynecological tumors in the US?

Endometrial> Ovarian> cervial

40

Worst prognosis of gynecological tumors in the US?

Ovarian> cervical> endometrial

41

What causes Vaginal SCC?

High risk HPV...but it is usually secondary to cervical SCC

42

What is a cell marker for Sarcoma botryoides?

Desmin (+)

43

What types of HPV are associated with cervical SCC?

HPV 16 and 18

44

Is cervcal SCC reversible?

Yes, if caught in the SIN stages (cervical carcinoma in situ)

45

What is the #1 risk factor for cervical SCC?

multiple sexual partners

46

Describe the ratio of LH: FSH in PCOS?

Increased

47

Why is there an increased risk of endometrial cancer in PCOS?

Due to unopposed estrogen from repeated anovulatory cycles

48

What is the most common ovaria mass in young women?

Follicular cysts

49

What is a cell marker for ovarian cancer?

CA 125

50

What is the most common ovarian neoplasm?

Serous cystadenoma

51

"mass containing all 3 germ layers"

Mature cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst)

52

"ovarian tumor that resembles transitional cells of the bladder"

Brenner tumor

53

"triad of ovarian fibroma, ascites, hydrothorax"

Meigs syndrome

54

What hormone can thecomas produce?

Estrogen

55

""aggressive malignant ovarian tumor contains fetal tissue, neuroectoderm"

immature teratoma

56

What is the most common malignant stromal tumor of the ovaries?

Granulosa cell tumor

57

What hormones do granulosa cell tumors produce?

Estrogen
Progesterone

58

Tumor markers of dysgerminoma?

hCG and LDH

59

Marker for Choriocarcinoma?

hCG

60

Marker for Yolk sac tumors?

AFP

61

Whhat is a common histological finding of yolk sac tumors?

Schiller- Duval Bodies (resemble glomeruli)

62

"mucus secreting SIGNET cell adenocarcinoma of the ovaries"

Krunkenberg tumor (GI met to the ovaries

63

What is an endometrial polyp?

well circumscribed collection of endometrial tisue withint he uterine wall that MAY contain smooth muscle cells

64

benign smooth muscle tumor of the endometrium

Leimyoma (fibroid)

65

Why do leimyomas in the uterus have waxing and waning symptoms?

Beause they are sensitive to estrogen

66

"extension of endometrial tissue (glandular) into uterine myometrium"

Adenomyosis

67

What preceeds endometrial carcinoma?

Endometiral hyperplasia

68

Most common breast tumor in pre-menopausal women?

Fibroadenoma

69

Where are breast fibroadenomas located?

Stroma of the breast

70

Where are intraductal papillomas located?

Lacterferous sinus (typically beneath the areola)

71

Which benign breast tumor has an increased risk of malignancy?

Intraductal papilloma and phyllodes tumor

72

Where are phyllodes tumors located?

Stroma

73

What drugs creat gynecomastia in men?

Spironolactone
Digoxin
Cimetidine
Alcohol
Ketoconazole

74

What quadrant of the breast are malignant tumors more commonly located?

Upper outer quadrant

75

Where in the breast is DCIS located?

Major duct

76

What is the subtype of DCIS with ductal, central necrosis?

Comedocarcinoma

77

Where is invasive ductal carcinoma most likely located?

in the major duct

78

Where is invasive ductal carcinoma most likely located?

in the major duct

79

"invasive carcinoma of the breast with orderly rows of cells"

invasive lobular

80

What causes the orderly row like appearahce of cells in invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast?

Decreased E- cadherin expression

81

What causes the inflammatory invasive breast cancer?

Dermal lympocytic invasion by breast carcinoma--> neoplastic cells block lymphatic drainage

82

What causes the inflammatory invasive breast cancer?

Dermal lympocytic invasion by breast carcinoma--> neoplastic cells block lymphatic drainage

83

"abnormal curvature of the penis due to fibrous plaque within tunica albuginea that can cause pain and anxiety"

Peyronie disease

84

"painful sustained erection lasting >4 hours"

Priapism

85

How is priapism treated?

corporal aspiration, intracavernosal phenylephrine, or surgical decompression

86

"cancer of glans that presents as erythroplakia"

Erythroplasia of Queyrat--> Penile SCC

87

"presents on penile shaft as leukoplakia"

Bowen disease--> SC of the penis

88

"carcinoma in situ of unclear malignant potential, presenting as reddish papules on the penis"

Bowenoid papulosis

89

Why is there impaired spermatogenesis in cryptochidism?

Because sperm develop best at temperatures

90

"dilated veins in pampiniform plexus due to increased venous pressure"

Varicocele

91

"dilated veins in pampiniform plexus due to increased venous pressure"

Varicocele

92

"scrotal swelling in infants, due to incomplete obliteration of processus vaginalis"

Congenital hydrcele

93

Are the majority of testicular cancers germ cell or non-germ cell?

Germ cell!!

94

What are 2 risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors?

1- cryptorchidism
2- Klinefelter syndrome

95

When are seminomas seen?

After the thrid decade in life! NEVER in infancy

96

What is the cell marker for yolk sac tumors?

AFP

97

What age are yolk sac testicular tumors seen?

98

What are the cell markers for teratoma?

hCG and AFP

99

"malignant,hemorrhagic mass with necrosis in the testicle"

Embryomal carcinoma

100

What are the 3 types of non-germ cell tumors?

1- Leydig cell
2- Sertoli cell
3- Testicular Lymphoma

101

What is the most common non germ cell testicular cancer?

Testicular lymphoma

102

What zone has undergone hyperplasia in BHP?

Periurethral

103

What type of bone mets are seen in prostate cancer?

Osteoblastic metastases

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