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Flashcards in Micro 2 High Yield Deck (117):
1

Which neisseria is intracellular?

N. gonorroeae

2

Which neisseria ferments maltose?

N. meningococci

3

What is the treatment for N. gonorrhea?

Ceftriaxone ( + azithromycin or doxycycline)

4

What is the treatment for N. meningococci?

Ceftriaxone or penicillin G

5

What type of deficiency leads to increased risk of infection with N. meningococci?

Deficiency in C5- C8

6

T/F: H. flu can only be grown on chocolate agar plates

False...it can also grow on a regular plate with S. aureus due to the beta hemolysis

7

How is mucosal H. flu treated?

Amoxicillin +/- clavulanate

8

How is H. flu meningitis treated?

Ceftriaxone

9

Which vaccine has a dipherthia toxic conjugation?

H. flue

10

What 2 things does Legionella need in order to grow?

Fe and Cysteine

11

How is legionella transmitted?

Aerosol transmission from environmental water source

12

How does legionella present in immunoCOMPROMISED hosts?

Legionnaires disease--> Pneumonia + GI + CNS symptoms

13

What are 2 risk factors for legionella?

Smoking

Alcoholics

14

What is the treatment for legionella?

Fluoroquinolone

15

What is a physical exam finding indicative of pseudomonas aeruginosa?

Fruity odor

16

How does EPEC infections cause disease?

E. coli adhere to apical surfaces, flatten villi and prevent reabsorption

17

Possible complications of EHEC?

HUS! Reactive arthritis

18

What risk factors are associated with klebsiella infection?

Alcoholics

Diabetics

19

"currant jelly sputum"

Klebsiella lobar pneumonia

20

What gram (-) rod likes to grow at 42 C?

Campylobacter jejuni

21

What are common complications of Campylobacter infections?

reactive arthritis

guillain barre syndrome

22

Describe the infectious dose of C. jejuni? Shigella?

Very LOW for both

23

What are the immune cells seen in Salmonella typhi infection?

Monocytes

24

What are the immune cells seen in salmonella spp and Shigella?

PMNs

25

T/F: antibiotics shorten the course of a salmonella infection?

FALSE--> Prolong infection

26

What receptor does V. cholerae enterotoxin permanently activate?

Gs--> increase cAMP

27

Are yersinia enterocolitic motile? or nonmotile?

They are motile at 25C and nonmotile at 37C

28

What type of environment (acidic or alkaline) does H. pylori create?

Alkaline (urease +)

29

How is treponemia usually visualized?

Dark field microscopy

30

Name the 3 spirochetes:

Borrelia
Leptospira
Treponema

31

How does leptospira typically present?

Influenza with GI symptoms

32

How is borrelia burgdorferi transmitted?

Ixodes deer tick

33

What are the 3 main initial symptoms of lyme disease?

1- erythema chronicum migrans
2- Flu like symptoms
3- facial nerve palsy

34

What are the 4 main later symptoms of lyme disease?

1- monoarthritis
2- migratory polyarthritis
Cardiac (AV nodal block)
Neurologic

35

How does primary syphilis present?

Painless chancre

36

What are the symptoms of secondary syphilis?

1- maculopapular rash
2- condylomata lata

37

How is a syphilis diagnosis made in primary stage?

Dark field or VDRL

38

What are the signs of congenital syphilis?

1- facial abnormalities
2- snuffles
3- saddle nose
4- notched teeth, mulberry molarss
5- short maxilla
6- saber shins
7- CN VIII deafness

39

What are the symptoms of tertiary syphilis?

1- gummas
2- aortitiss vasa casorum destruction)
3- neurosyphilis (tabes dorsalis)
4- Argyll roberston

40

What can give a VDRL false positive?

Viral infection
Drugs
Rheumatic fever
Lupus and leprosy

41

"pleomorphic gram variable rod involved in bacterial vaginosis"

Gardnerella vaginalis

42

What are the signs and symptoms of gardnerella vaginalis?

Fishy smell
Clue cells

43

How is gardnerella vaginalis treated?

Metronidazole
Clindamycin

44

Describe the rash seen in RMSF (Rickettsia rickettsii)?

Starts at wrists then spreads out, sparing palms and soles

45

Describe the rash of typhus (R. typhi and R. prowazekii)?

starts centrall then spreads out, sparing palms and soles

46

What is the classic triad of RMSF?

Headache, fever, rash (vasculitis)

47

"monocytes with morulae (berry like inclusions) in cytoplasm"

Ehrlichiosis

48

What causes Q fever?

Coxiella burnetii--> does not require an arthropod vector

49

Why are chlaydia obligate intracellular pathogens?

Cannot make their own ATP

50

"chronic infection causing blindness due to follicular conjunctivitis in Africa"

C. trachomatis Types A, B, C

51

Chlamydial infection serotype that causes urethritis/ PID ectopic pregnangy, an neonatal pneumonia?

Types D-K

52

"small, painless ulcers on genitals--> swollen, painful inguinal lymph nodes that ulcerate (buboes)"

C. trachomatis Types L1, L2, L3

53

Which pneumonia can cause cold agglutinins (IgM)?

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

54

"mulberry shaped colonies"

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

55

What is the treatment for mycoplasma pneumoniae?

Macrolides
Doxycycline
Fluoroquinolones

56

Fungi in missisippi and ohio riber valleys?

Histoplasmosis

57

"macrophages filled with fungi"

Histoplasmosis

58

What exposure is histoplasmosis associated with?

Bird/ bat droppings

59

Fungi in the Mississippi river and central america?

Blastomycosis

60

What exposure is associated with blastomycosis?

Beaver dams/ rotting wood

61

Broad based buds?

Blastomycosis

62

Fungi in the SW US/ Cali?

Coccidiodomycosis

63

What does coccidiodomycosis cause?

Pneumonia
Meningitis

64

"spherule filled with endospores"

Coccidiomycosis

65

"budding yeast with 'captain's wheel' formation"

Paracoccidiodomycosis

66

Fungi in latin america?

Paracoccidiodomycosis

67

What fungi can cause tinea (dermatophytes)?

Micosporum, Tichophyton, Epidermophyton (dermatophytes)

68

What fungi can cause tinea versicolor?

Malassezia (yeast like fungus--> not a dermatophyte)

69

"spaghetti and meatballs" fungus?

tinea versicolor--> malassezia

70

What is treatment for tinea versicolor?

Selenium silfide

71

Name 4 opportunistic fungi?

1- Candida albicans
2- Aspergillus fumigatus
3- Cryptococcus neoformans
4- Mucor and Rhizopus

72

"pseudohyphase and budding yeast. germ tube + at 37C"

Candida alblicans

73

"septate branching hyphae at 45 degree angles or conidiophore with radiating chains of spores"

Aspergillus fumigatus

74

"Yeast with wide capsular halos and unequal budding in india ink stain"

Cryptococcus neoformans

75

What exposure is associated with with cryptococcus neoformans?

Pigeon

76

What identification test can be done for cryptococcus?

Latex agglutination test detect polysaccharide capsular antigen

77

What risk factors are associaed with mucor and rhizopus?

Diabetes and neutropenia

78

Where and how do mucor and rhizopus proliferate?

Fungi proliferate in blood vessel walls, penetrate cribiform plate and then enter the brain

79

"disc shaped yaest that forms of methenamine silver sain of lung tissue:

Pneumocystis jirovecii

80

What is the treatment and prophylaxis for pneymocystis?

TMO- SMX, pentamidine, dapsone

81

"dimorphic, cigar shaped budding yeast that lives on vegitation"

Sporothrix schenckii

82

How does sporothrix present?

Rose gardener's disease--> local pustule or ulcer with nodules along draining lymphatics (ascending lymphadenitis)

83

How is giardia diagnosed?

Trophozoites or cysts in stool

84

Treatment for Giardia?

Metronidazole

85

"bloody diarrhea + liver abscess"

Entamoeba histolytica

86

How is Entamoeba histolytica (amebiasis) diagnosed?

Trophozoites or cysts in stool

87

Treatment for Entamoeba histolytica (amebiasis)?

Metronidazole, iodoquinol

88

"severe diarrhea in AIDS and mild in immunocompetent"

Cryptosporidium

89

How is Cryptosporidium diagnosed?

OOcysts in acid fast stain

90

How is Cryptosporidium treated?

nitazoxanide

91

"classic triad of chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, and intracranial calcifications"

Toxoplasma gondii

92

How is toxoplamsa transmitted?

Cysts in MEAT


Oocysts in CAT FECES

93

How is toxoplasma treated?

Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine

94

"rapidly fatal menigoencephalitis with altered sense of smell"

Naegleria fowleri--> contracted by swimming in freshwater lakes (enter via cribiform plate)

95

"enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever, somnolence, coma"

Trypanosoma brucei

96

How is trypanosoma brucei contracted?

Tsetse fly

97

"fever and hemolytic anemia seen in NE US"

Babesia

98

How is babesia diagnosed?

Blood smear--> RBC haev Maltese cross or Ring form of the parasites

99

How is babesia treated?

Atovaquone + azithromycin

100

"dilated cardiomyopathy with apical atrophy, megacolon, megaesophagus"

Trypanosoma cruzi

101

How is T. cruzi transmitted?

Reduviid bug

102

What is the treatment for T. cruzi?

Benznidazole or nifurtimox

103

"spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia"

Leishmania donovani

104

"frothy, foul smelling, green discharge associated with a strawberry cervix"

trichomonas vaginalis

105

How is trichomaonas treated?

Metronidazole

106

"intestinal infection with possible obstruction at ileocecal valve"

Ascaris lumbricoides--> giant worm

107

How are the following treated:

Enterobius vermicularis
Ascaris lumbricoides
Strongyloides stercoralis
Ancylostoma duodenale
Necantor americanus
Trichinella spiralis

Enterobius vermicularis--> bendazoles

Ascaris lumbricoides--> bendazoles

Strongyloides stercoralis--> ivermectin/ bendazoles

Ancylostoma duodenale--> bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate

Necantor americanus--> bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate

Trichinella spiralis--> bendazoles

108

Which nematoes are contracted via larvae penetration of the skin?

Stronglyoides atercoralis

Ancylostoma duodenale

Necator americanus

109

What causes river blindness?

Onchocerca volvulus

110

What causes elephantiasis?

Wuchereria bancrofti

111

"swelling in skin, worm in conjunctiva"

Loa loa

112

Which neomatodes are contracted via ingestion?

Enterobius
Ascaris
Toxocara
Necantor

113

If you ingest larvae of taenia solium what type of infection do you get? What about ingesting eggs?

Larrvae--> intestinal infection

Eggs--> cystercosis/ neurocystericosis

114

How is taenia solium treated?

Praziquantel

115

Symptoms of diphyllobothrium latum infection?

vitamin B12 deficiency--> mealoblastic anemia

116

"hydatid cysts in the liver, causing anaphylaxis if antigens are released"

Echinococcus granulosis

117

How is achinococcus granulosis treated?

albendazole

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