Flashcards in Micro 2 High Yield Deck (117):
Which neisseria is intracellular?
Which neisseria ferments maltose?
What is the treatment for N. gonorrhea?
Ceftriaxone ( + azithromycin or doxycycline)
What is the treatment for N. meningococci?
Ceftriaxone or penicillin G
What type of deficiency leads to increased risk of infection with N. meningococci?
Deficiency in C5- C8
T/F: H. flu can only be grown on chocolate agar plates
False...it can also grow on a regular plate with S. aureus due to the beta hemolysis
How is mucosal H. flu treated?
Amoxicillin +/- clavulanate
How is H. flu meningitis treated?
Which vaccine has a dipherthia toxic conjugation?
What 2 things does Legionella need in order to grow?
Fe and Cysteine
How is legionella transmitted?
Aerosol transmission from environmental water source
How does legionella present in immunoCOMPROMISED hosts?
Legionnaires disease--> Pneumonia + GI + CNS symptoms
What are 2 risk factors for legionella?
What is the treatment for legionella?
What is a physical exam finding indicative of pseudomonas aeruginosa?
How does EPEC infections cause disease?
E. coli adhere to apical surfaces, flatten villi and prevent reabsorption
Possible complications of EHEC?
HUS! Reactive arthritis
What risk factors are associated with klebsiella infection?
"currant jelly sputum"
Klebsiella lobar pneumonia
What gram (-) rod likes to grow at 42 C?
What are common complications of Campylobacter infections?
guillain barre syndrome
Describe the infectious dose of C. jejuni? Shigella?
Very LOW for both
What are the immune cells seen in Salmonella typhi infection?
What are the immune cells seen in salmonella spp and Shigella?
T/F: antibiotics shorten the course of a salmonella infection?
FALSE--> Prolong infection
What receptor does V. cholerae enterotoxin permanently activate?
Gs--> increase cAMP
Are yersinia enterocolitic motile? or nonmotile?
They are motile at 25C and nonmotile at 37C
What type of environment (acidic or alkaline) does H. pylori create?
Alkaline (urease +)
How is treponemia usually visualized?
Dark field microscopy
Name the 3 spirochetes:
How does leptospira typically present?
Influenza with GI symptoms
How is borrelia burgdorferi transmitted?
Ixodes deer tick
What are the 3 main initial symptoms of lyme disease?
1- erythema chronicum migrans
2- Flu like symptoms
3- facial nerve palsy
What are the 4 main later symptoms of lyme disease?
2- migratory polyarthritis
Cardiac (AV nodal block)
How does primary syphilis present?
What are the symptoms of secondary syphilis?
1- maculopapular rash
2- condylomata lata
How is a syphilis diagnosis made in primary stage?
Dark field or VDRL
What are the signs of congenital syphilis?
1- facial abnormalities
3- saddle nose
4- notched teeth, mulberry molarss
5- short maxilla
6- saber shins
7- CN VIII deafness
What are the symptoms of tertiary syphilis?
2- aortitiss vasa casorum destruction)
3- neurosyphilis (tabes dorsalis)
4- Argyll roberston
What can give a VDRL false positive?
Lupus and leprosy
"pleomorphic gram variable rod involved in bacterial vaginosis"
What are the signs and symptoms of gardnerella vaginalis?
How is gardnerella vaginalis treated?
Describe the rash seen in RMSF (Rickettsia rickettsii)?
Starts at wrists then spreads out, sparing palms and soles
Describe the rash of typhus (R. typhi and R. prowazekii)?
starts centrall then spreads out, sparing palms and soles
What is the classic triad of RMSF?
Headache, fever, rash (vasculitis)
"monocytes with morulae (berry like inclusions) in cytoplasm"
What causes Q fever?
Coxiella burnetii--> does not require an arthropod vector
Why are chlaydia obligate intracellular pathogens?
Cannot make their own ATP
"chronic infection causing blindness due to follicular conjunctivitis in Africa"
C. trachomatis Types A, B, C
Chlamydial infection serotype that causes urethritis/ PID ectopic pregnangy, an neonatal pneumonia?
"small, painless ulcers on genitals--> swollen, painful inguinal lymph nodes that ulcerate (buboes)"
C. trachomatis Types L1, L2, L3
Which pneumonia can cause cold agglutinins (IgM)?
"mulberry shaped colonies"
What is the treatment for mycoplasma pneumoniae?
Fungi in missisippi and ohio riber valleys?
"macrophages filled with fungi"
What exposure is histoplasmosis associated with?
Bird/ bat droppings
Fungi in the Mississippi river and central america?
What exposure is associated with blastomycosis?
Beaver dams/ rotting wood
Broad based buds?
Fungi in the SW US/ Cali?
What does coccidiodomycosis cause?
"spherule filled with endospores"
"budding yeast with 'captain's wheel' formation"
Fungi in latin america?
What fungi can cause tinea (dermatophytes)?
Micosporum, Tichophyton, Epidermophyton (dermatophytes)
What fungi can cause tinea versicolor?
Malassezia (yeast like fungus--> not a dermatophyte)
"spaghetti and meatballs" fungus?
tinea versicolor--> malassezia
What is treatment for tinea versicolor?
Name 4 opportunistic fungi?
1- Candida albicans
2- Aspergillus fumigatus
3- Cryptococcus neoformans
4- Mucor and Rhizopus
"pseudohyphase and budding yeast. germ tube + at 37C"
"septate branching hyphae at 45 degree angles or conidiophore with radiating chains of spores"
"Yeast with wide capsular halos and unequal budding in india ink stain"
What exposure is associated with with cryptococcus neoformans?
What identification test can be done for cryptococcus?
Latex agglutination test detect polysaccharide capsular antigen
What risk factors are associaed with mucor and rhizopus?
Diabetes and neutropenia
Where and how do mucor and rhizopus proliferate?
Fungi proliferate in blood vessel walls, penetrate cribiform plate and then enter the brain
"disc shaped yaest that forms of methenamine silver sain of lung tissue:
What is the treatment and prophylaxis for pneymocystis?
TMO- SMX, pentamidine, dapsone
"dimorphic, cigar shaped budding yeast that lives on vegitation"
How does sporothrix present?
Rose gardener's disease--> local pustule or ulcer with nodules along draining lymphatics (ascending lymphadenitis)
How is giardia diagnosed?
Trophozoites or cysts in stool
Treatment for Giardia?
"bloody diarrhea + liver abscess"
How is Entamoeba histolytica (amebiasis) diagnosed?
Trophozoites or cysts in stool
Treatment for Entamoeba histolytica (amebiasis)?
"severe diarrhea in AIDS and mild in immunocompetent"
How is Cryptosporidium diagnosed?
OOcysts in acid fast stain
How is Cryptosporidium treated?
"classic triad of chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, and intracranial calcifications"
How is toxoplamsa transmitted?
Cysts in MEAT
Oocysts in CAT FECES
How is toxoplasma treated?
Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine
"rapidly fatal menigoencephalitis with altered sense of smell"
Naegleria fowleri--> contracted by swimming in freshwater lakes (enter via cribiform plate)
"enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever, somnolence, coma"
How is trypanosoma brucei contracted?
"fever and hemolytic anemia seen in NE US"
How is babesia diagnosed?
Blood smear--> RBC haev Maltese cross or Ring form of the parasites
How is babesia treated?
Atovaquone + azithromycin
"dilated cardiomyopathy with apical atrophy, megacolon, megaesophagus"
How is T. cruzi transmitted?
What is the treatment for T. cruzi?
Benznidazole or nifurtimox
"spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia"
"frothy, foul smelling, green discharge associated with a strawberry cervix"
How is trichomaonas treated?
"intestinal infection with possible obstruction at ileocecal valve"
Ascaris lumbricoides--> giant worm
How are the following treated:
Enterobius vermicularis--> bendazoles
Ascaris lumbricoides--> bendazoles
Strongyloides stercoralis--> ivermectin/ bendazoles
Ancylostoma duodenale--> bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate
Necantor americanus--> bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate
Trichinella spiralis--> bendazoles
Which nematoes are contracted via larvae penetration of the skin?
What causes river blindness?
What causes elephantiasis?
"swelling in skin, worm in conjunctiva"
Which neomatodes are contracted via ingestion?
If you ingest larvae of taenia solium what type of infection do you get? What about ingesting eggs?
Larrvae--> intestinal infection
Eggs--> cystercosis/ neurocystericosis
How is taenia solium treated?
Symptoms of diphyllobothrium latum infection?
vitamin B12 deficiency--> mealoblastic anemia
"hydatid cysts in the liver, causing anaphylaxis if antigens are released"