Sleep Apnea and Screening for Lung Cancer Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Sleep Apnea and Screening for Lung Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sleep Apnea and Screening for Lung Cancer Deck (20):
1

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Due to obstruction of the upper airway

2

Central Sleep Apnea

Failure of the brain to initiate respiration

3

Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

-􏰃 Almost all also have OSA
􏰃- Hypo-ventilate even when awake

4

What is the chest effort in obstructive sleep apnea?

Preserved chest effort

5

What are some risk factors for central sleep apnea?

- CNS Disease
- Heart Failure

6

What is the chest effort in central sleep apnea?

It is halted along with the apnea

7

What is the diagnosis for sleep apnea?

􏰃Polysomnography

8

Apnea-Hypopnea Index

Anything greater than 5 episodes per hour is abnormal

9

What are some risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea?

- Obesity
-􏰃 Neck Circumference (>17 in) 􏰃 Hypertension
􏰃- Male Gender
􏰃- Increasing Age
􏰃- Smoking
􏰃- Retrognathia

10

What is the main population affected by obstructive sleep apnea?

US White Males with BMI 25-28

11

What are some of the consequences of sleep apnea?

-􏰃 Daytime Hypersomnolence 􏰃
- Intellectual Impairment
- Pulmonary Hypertension
􏰃- Polycythemia

12

How does the treatment of OSA affect CHF?

It may improve CHF

13

What is the effect of OSA on BP?

It can lead to HTN - increased sympathetic nervous activity which will raise BP

14

What are some of the treatment options for sleep apnea?

- Weight Loss
- CPAP

15

What is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women?

Lung Cancer

16

Why is lung cancer screening important?

To catch lung cancer early as most cases present very late which contributes to the mortality rate

17

Why was the USPSTF against lung cancer screening pre-1999?

Screening identified more cancers but had NO effect on mortality

18

What cancer study shifted the stance of the USPSTF on lung screening to indeterminate?

ELCAP which compared LDCT with CXR screening methods

19

What is the relationship between the size of a lung tumor and the chance of malignancy?

The larger the nodule the more chance it will be malignant

20

What is the current recommendation for lung cancer screening?

The USPSTF recommends annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography in adults ages 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years.

Decks in Pathology Class (203):