Antimicrobials/ Antifungals/ Antivirals High Yield Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antimicrobials/ Antifungals/ Antivirals High Yield Deck (57):
1

Treatment for M. tuberculosis?

RIPE

Rifampin
Isoniazid
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol

2

Treatment for M. avium- intracellulare?

Azithromycin

3

Which drug inibits mycolic acid synthesis?

Isoniazid

4

Which drug inhibits arabinoglycan synthesis?

Ethambutol

5

Which drug inhibits DNA dependent RNA polymerase?

Rifampin

6

AE of rifampin?

Minor hepatotoxicity, and drug interactions (increase P450 activity)

7

How is isoniazid activated within cells?

Bacterial catalase peroxidase needed to convert INH to active metabolite

8

AE of isoniazid?

Neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity

9

How does resistance to Isoniazid occur?

Underexpression of activating catalase peroxidase

10

AE of ethambutol?

Optic neuropathy (red green color blindness)

11

What is used for prevention of conococcal conjunctivitis in newborns?

Erythromycin ointment

12

5 drugs that can be used on MRSA?

Vancomycin

Daptomycin

Linezolid

Tigecycline

Ceftaroline

13

2 drugs that work for VRE?

Linezolid

Streptogrammins (quinuprstin, dalfoprostin)

14

Drug that inhibits lanosterol synthesis via inhibition of squalene epoxide?

Terbinafine

15

Drug that inhibits fungal cell wall synthesis via inhibition of Beta glucan?

Echinocandins (capsofungin, anidulafungin)

16

Drug that inhibits ergosterol synthesis via inhibtion of 14 alpha demethylase?

Azoles (Ketoconazole, fluconazole...)

17

Drug that inhibit fungal nucleic acid synthesis?

Fluctosine

18

Drugs that form membrane pores in fungus?

Polyenes

(Amphoteracin B and nystatin)

19

AE of amphotericin B?

Nephrotoxicity!

K/Mg wasting
Renal tubular acidosis

20

What is flucytosine used for?

systemic fungal infections (combo with Ampho B)

21

AE of the azoles?

Inhibition of cyt P450! (Liver dysfunction

Gynecomastia

22

Which are the topical azoles?

Clotrimazole and miconazole

23

AE of terbifine?

GI upset, HA, hepatotoxicity

24

What is terbifine used for ?

Dermatophytoses

25

What antifungal interferes with microtubule function, and disrupts mitosits"

Griseofulvin

26

What is griseofulvin used for?

oral treatment of superficial infections--> tinea!

27

AE of griseofulvin?

Teratogenic, carcinogenic, induce P450 system

28

What are the following drugs used for:

Permethrin (Na channel blocker)
Malathion (AChase inhibitor)
Lindane (Blocl GABA channels)

Anti-mite/ louse therapy

29

AE of chloroquine?

Retinopathy

30

Inhibitors of inhluenza neuraminidase?

Oseltamvir and zanamivir

31

What drugs are guanosine anaolgs that are phosphorhylated by viral thymidine kinase in invected cells?

Acyclovir, famciclovir and valacyclovir

Chain termination

32

What is the mechanism of resistance to acyclovir and similar drugs?

mutated viral thymidine kinase

33

Which herpes virus antiviral can be used in CMV?

Ganciclovir

34

What is Foscarnet?

viral DNA/ RNA polymerase inhibitor and HIV reverse transcriptase inibitor

35

What is foscarnet used for?

CMV retinitis when gancyclovir fails and acyclovir resistant HSV

36

AE of foscarnet?

Nephrotoxicity and electrolyte abnormalities (hypo all except hyperphosphate)

37

Use and mechanism of cidofovir?

Same as foscarnet

38

Name the HIV protease inhibitors?

"-navir"

39

Which protease inhibitor is used as a "boost"?

Ritonavir...it inhibits P450

40

What are the major AE of Protease inhibitors?

Dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia

41

Name the class:

abacavir
Didanosine
Emtricitabine
Lamivudine
Tenofovir
Zidovudine

NRTI

42

Major AE of all NRTI's

BMS

43

AE of zidovudine?

anemia

44

Major AE of didanosine?

Pancreatitis

45

Name the class:

Enfavirenz
Nevirapine
Delavirdine

NNRTI

46

AE of NNRTI's?

Hepatotoxic

Enfavirenz--> teratogenic and vivid dreams

Delavirdine--> teratogenic

47

Name the mechanism:

Raltegravir

"-gravir"

increase creatinine kinase

48

AE of raltegravir

Increased CK because Rhabdo

49

Name the mechanism:

Enfurvitide

Binds gp41 to inhibit fusion

50

Mechnaism of maraviroc?

Binds CCR5 to inhibit interaction with gpl120

51

What is IFN alpha used to treat?

Chronic Hep B/ C

Kaposi sarcoma

Hairy cell leukemia

Condyloma acuminatum

RCC
Malignant melanoma

52

What is IFN- beta used to treat?

Multiple sclerosis

53

What is ITN- gamma used to treat?

Chronic granulomatous disease

54

What are ribavirin, simeprevir and sofosbuvir used to treat?

Hep C

55

Which Hep C drug is a protease inhibitor?

Simeprevir

56

Which hep C drug inhibits RNA dependent RNA polymease (acting as a chain terminator)?

Sofosbuvir

57

AE of ribavirin?

Hemolytic anemia, teratogen

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