Chapter 14 Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Notes Deck (50):
1

new power source in 1870

electricity

2

Michael Faraday/magnetism

he discovered that he could use magnetism to generate electricity which led to the development of the first electric generator

3

early light bulb problem

they burned out in a number of minutes

4

to make electricity practical

it had to be transmitted efficiently from where it was generated to where it would be used

5

hydroelectric power

water-generated power

6

Alexander Graham Bell

invented the telephone

7

Guglielmo Marconi

developed a way to send messages through space without wires (wireless telegraphs)

8

Charles and Frank Duryea

built the first successful gasoline driven automobile in the United States

9

Henry Ford

made thousands of cars using the assembly line and produced the first commercially successful automobile, the Model T

10

Wilbur and Orville Wright

first people to achieve a sustained controlled flight in a powered airplane

11

where the Wright brothers' flight took place

Kitty Hawk, NC

12

the scientific principles governing the movement of air around objects

aerodynamics

13

How were Thomas Edison's lightbulbs and improvement on the one's that came before?

the ones that came before burned out in a number of minutes; they burned for two days

14

How was the internal combustion engine different than engines that came before it?

the ones that came before it were limited because they had to remain connected to a power source; it created its own power and functioned on its own

15

biological sciences

sciences that deal with living organisms
biology, genetics, anatomy, botany, and zoology

16

physical sciences

deal with nonliving matter and energy; physics, chemistry, astronomy, and geology

17

cell theory

1. all living things are made up of these tiny units of living matter 2. all cells divide and multiply causing organisms to grow and mature

18

On the Origin of Species

Charles Darwin's book that was his theory of evolution

19

survival of the fittest or natural selection

those who survive will be those whose characteristics are best adapted to their environment

20

controversy on Darwin's evolution theory

1. it stated that humans developed from animals 2. contradicted the story of creation in the Bible

21

Gregor Mendel

founded genetics

22

genetics

the study of how the inborn characteristics of plants and animals are inherited by their descendants

23

traits

those inborn characteristics

24

Edward Jenner

developed the smallpox vaccine

25

Louis Pasteur/bacteria

he identified microorganisms called bacteria; his experiments showed that bacteria reproduce like other living things

26

pasteurization

a process of heating liquids to kill bacteria and prevent fermentation

27

Joseph Lister

developed antisepsis which is the use of chemicals to kill disease causing germs

28

Alexander Fleming

discovered penicillin

29

Mendeleyev

made the first workable classification of the elements (periodic table)

30

The Curies/radioactivity

they worked with radioactivity and found that certain elements constantly break down to release energy in a process called radioactivity

31

William Rontgen

discovered x-rays

32

Albert Einstein

worked on the atom bomb; a young German scientist who published four papers that would forever change physics

33

theory of relativity

no particle of matter can move faster than the speed of light and that motion can be measured only relative to a particle observer

34

E=mc2

e=energy; m=mass; c=speed of light; expresses the relationship between energy and mass

35

What characterized many of the people who emigrated during the 1800s?

they wanted better jobs, to better their economic condition, and to also better their political situation

36

Why did people move from one place to another in Europe?

they moved to places where there were more jobs available or higher wages

37

social sciences

those branches of knowledge that scientifically study people as members of society

38

archaeology

the study of human culture through the artifacts people leave behind

39

anthropology

the study of different societies both past and present

40

sociology

the study of human relationships in a society

41

Auguste Comte

one of the founders of sociology

42

social Darwinism

people that are strong and have wealth have superior characteristics; poverty proved that people were unfit

43

psychology

studies the mind and human behavior

44

Ivan Pavlov/"classical conditioning"

there is a stimulus that illicites a response; discovered the conditioned reflex

45

Sigmund Freud/psychoanalysis

he developed psychoanalysis; the unconscious is a determining factor in human behavior

46

emigrations/change in populations

movements of people away from their native lands; estimated 10 million people left Europe for the Americas during this time

47

bobbies

Robert Peel organized the first permanent police force in London

48

suburbs

residential areas on the outskirts of cites

49

Laissez-faire/capitalism

wants govt not to meddle in the operations of business/means let it be in French; individuals rather than govt control the factors of production

50

Karl Marx/revolt of workers/socialist society

whet the workers rebel and united we will have a classless society

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