Chapter 16 Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Notes Deck (65):
0

Congress of Vienna divided Italy into

several large and small states

1

risorgimento

Italian for resurgence
it was a nationalist movement to revive tradition

2

What were the goals of the risorgimento?

liberation and unification

3

Carnonari

a secret society of nationalists who worked towards these goals

4

Mazzini

called for Italians to be patriots and join his Young Italy movement

5

Young Italy Movement

dedicated to spreading the ideas of the risorgimento

6

King Victor Emmanuel II's goal was to

expand Sardinian territory

7

Camillo Cavour was

King Victor's chief minister

8

Napoleon III of France sent troops to

help drive out Austria

9

war with Austria 1859

Sardinia and French forces drive out Austria

10

the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

the southern half of Italy plus the island of Sicily

11

Expedition of the Thousand

this army of Garibaldi's of more than 1000 invaded and captured Sicily

12

red shirts

Garibaldi's supporters were known as this

13

In 1870 what did Rome's citizens do?

they voted for unification with Italy

14

three problems that unification in Italy brought

1. Few Italians had experience with self govt 2. regions of the country remained divided by cultural traditions 3. tensions grew between the industrial N and agricultural S 4. standard of living of most Italians was low 5. labor problems arose

15

was the leader of the states in Germany

Prussia

16

there were independent states in Germany and each had their own

25
laws, currency, and rulers

17

leads fight for unification

Prussia

18

strengthening the army

army drafts soldiers for short periods of intensive training then soldiers go into reserves

19

Napoleon's rule inspired in Germany

nationalism

20

nationalism

love of one's country rather than of one's native region

21

junkers

a class of aristocratic landowners

22

the junkers had complaints on tariffs because

they were hurting the sales of farm products

23

Zollverein

customs union of the German states that made prices lower and more uniform

24

politically each state continued

to act independently

25

a constitution in Germany provided for and becomes king of Prussia who appointed to head of the cabinet

a hereditary monarchy
William I
Otto von Bismarck

26

Schleswig and Holstein

two small states on the border between Denmark and Germany and were the focus of the Danish War because Denmark refused to revoke their constitution

27

at the end of the Danish War Prussia controls and Austria controls

Schleswig
Holstein

28

Seven Weeks' War Bismarck prepares for and persuaded and made an alliance with

conflict with Austria
Napoleon III to remain neutral
the new nation of Italy

29

Outcome of the Seven Weeks' War

Prussians defeated Austrians in seven weeks and the Treaty of Prague officially ended the war; Prussia emerges as the leader of the German Confederation

30

Franco-Prussian War

July 1870 France declared war on Prussia and in January 1871 Paris surrendered; France lost Alsace and part of Lorraine

31

formation of the German Empire

Jan. 18, 1871 the German empire was formed with Berlin as the capital; Bismarck was named chancellor of the empire

32

what were the upper and lower houses

Bundesrat was the upper house
Reichstag was the lower house
both of these were parts of the German legislature

33

problems for the German empire after it was formed

constitution gave Bismarck limited power
dissatisfied groups formed political parties that opposed Bismarck
people feared Bismarck's military policy and the army
Bismarck was Protestant

34

Kultukampf

German for culture struggle
was an anti-Catholic program
in 1887 the program ended in failure

35

German empire turns into an because rich in the natural resources of

industrial giant
coal and iron deposits

36

Social Democratic Party (SDP)

formed in 1869 and members came from urban workers

37

antisocial campaign by Bismarck

in 1883 laws gave workers insurance against sickness and accidents that were paid for by the employers

38

resignation of Bismarck in 1888 Kaiser William I died and

William II was the grandson of William I who became the new emperor; he believed in the absolute authority of the emperor and in 1890 Bismarck resigned

39

by the early 1900s was stronger than ever before but conflicts soon arose with

Germany
Great Britain

40

in the mid 1800s was the largest in and

Russia
territory
population

41

problems in Russia

industrial development lagged in Russia
resources lay undeveloped
ports were blocked by ice for much of the year

42

ethnic groups in Russia

Belorussians-White Russians-west
Ukrainians-south
Great Russians-north and central Russia

43

czar ruled as an which is

autocrat
a ruler with absolute power

44

Russification

forced nonrussians to use the Russian language

45

pan slavism

the union of all Slavic people under Russian leadership
the union of all the Russian people

46

in 1855 became czar

Alexander II

47

Emancipation Edict

it freed all serfs but created some problems as well; the peasants could get land but couldn't afford it so moved to towns because they were unable to either buy or rent land

48

zemstov

a rural district

49

three groups with the right to vote

nobles
middle class
peasants

50

nihilists

middle and upper class intellectuals who believed in building a completely new Russia

51

People's Will

a Russian radical group that used terrorism to try to force the government to grant its demands

52

in 1881 Alexander II was

killed in a bomb attack by the People's Will

53

pogroms

riots where Jews were massacred

54

Bloody Sunday

czar's troops shot unarmed strikers
triggered the Revolution of 1905
October Manifesto promised individual liberties/personal liberties were given to the people

55

Duma

the new parliament in Russia

56

the Revolution of 1905 failed

to overthrow the czar

57

Hungary

one of the largest parts of the Austro-Hungarian empire

58

Magyars

largest part of the Austro-Hungarian population

59

dual monarchy was

formed in 1867 when Hungary wanted independence and it was also called Austria-Hungary; the ruler was Francis Joseph I

60

Hungary furnished and Austria produced

raw materials and food
manufactured goods

61

Ottoman Empire

known as the sick man of Europe because its military defeats had decreased the empire's territory; many were Christians and Jews

62

The Ottoman empire region contained many that wanted to

diverse groups
govern themselves

63

Foreign countries such as were interested because could gain

Russia
Russia
a water route from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea

64

Balkan League

Bulgaria
Serbia
Greece
Montenegro

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