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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Notes Deck (78):
1

scientific revolution

a period when experimentation and mathematics explained the mysteries

2

alchemist

people who attempted to mix metals to make gold

3

astrologists

studied the position of the stars and how they influenced people's lifes

4

impact of the scientific revolution

people no longer explained the world in terms of religion, magic, or the ancient writings

5

new "tools" for study

experimentation, mathematics, and developing new instruments

6

Ptolemy's theory

geocentric
means Earth-centered

7

what did the geocentric theory say

it said that the Earth was at the center and everything else revolved around the Earth

8

Why was Ptolemy's geocentric theory accepted?

1. the church supported it 2. gravity had not yet been discovered

9

Copernicus's theory

heliocentric
means sun centered

10

What did the heliocentric theory say

1. the sun was at the center of the universe 2. ultimately he could not prove his theory

11

What are Kepler's laws of planetary motion?

1. The planets travel in an elliptical orbit 2. Planets travel faster when they are closer to the sun 3. There is a relationship in the time that it takes to travel around the sun

12

Galileo

invented telescopes

13

What did Galileo's published views do?

It got him into conflict with the church and he had to recant his findings

14

Isaac Newton

proposed the law of universal gravitation

15

What did the laws on gravitation do?

They gave credibility to Copernicus's theory

16

What two things were introduced that changed navigation

astrolabe and compass

17

astrolabe

determined the latitude of a ship

18

What economic changes were caused by the commercial revolution

stable currency
banking services became specialized
late 1400s to 1700s

19

joint-stock company

investors bought shares in a company
These investors became co-owners

20

mercantilism

a country's wealth was based on how much gold they had

21

balance of trade

where your goods are sold to other countries more than you are having to buy

22

tariffs

a tax on imports

23

What was the role of the colonies

proved the raw materials
They could not trade with other countries

24

Three social changes during this time

the desire to learn more increased
increase in population
opportunity for quick profit

25

Mercantilism stated that

a country's government should do all it could to increase the country's wealth

26

Countries could achieve a favorable balance of trade by

placing tariffs or import taxes on good entering their country

27

Prince Henry also known as

The Navigator

28

First goal of Prince Henry

Find gold for Portugal

29

Bartholomeu Dias 1488

Rounded the tip of South Africa

30

Old name for the tip of South Africa

Cape of storms

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New name for the tip of South Africa

Cape of Good Hope

32

Vasco deGamma 1498

Rounded the tip and sailed to India

33

Importance of Dias's and deGamma's expeditions

Overseas route to India existed
Broke the Italian monopoly in the Mediterranean

34

Monarchs that financed Columbus's voyage

Ferdinand and Isabella

35

When and where did Columbus land in the Bahama islands

San Salvador October 12 1493

36

West Indies

Islands discovered by Columbus

37

Indians

Name applied to people in the West Indies

38

What happened in the Columbian exchange

Plants, animals, and minerals discovered in the New World
Old and new world coming together

39

Mundus Novus

Name given to the New World

40

Amerigo Vespucci

Believed that America got its name from him

41

Balboa

Discovered the Pacific ocean

42

"Victoria"

Part of Ferdinand Magellan's expedition in 1522 and was the only ship of five to complete the voyage around the world

43

The slave trade 1400s

Explores began capturing African tribes men for slaves

44

Middle passage

Voyage of slave ships across the Atlantic

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Triangular trade: the Americas

From America to Europe the Americas provided manufactured goods to Europe

46

Triangular trade Europe

Europe sold these manufactured goods for profit

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Triangular trade Africa

Slaves were shipped to the Americas for labor

48

Name three conditions of the slave ships

Packed below deck
Chained to their bunks
Very little heat food or water
Month long voyage

49

The sole purpose of slaves

Hard plantation labor

50

Papal line of demarcation

Divided new lands between Spain and Portugal

51

What did Portugal get from the line of demarcation

Got All lands east of the line

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What Did Spain get from the line of demarcation

Got all the lands west of the line

53

Treaty of Tordesillas

Moved the line further west

54

How did Spain benefit from the Treaty of Tordesillas

They would be able to claim land in most of North and South America

55

New Spain

Name given to Spain's New World empire

56

What did the Spanish do to resolve the question on how to govern so far away

They let the natives keep their culture
They had to recognize Spanish authority

57

Three g's on why Spain came to the Americas

Gold, wealth and riches
Glory, new lands, new acquisitions= prestige/something to boast about
God, try to convert the natives to Christianity

58

Conquistador

Means conqueror

59

Who were the conquistadors

These were the Spanish soldiers/explorers

60

Cortes conquered the

Aztecs
1519 Hernando Cortes leads his expedition into Mexico

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Montezuma

The Aztec chief

62

Pizarro conquered the

Incas
1530 Pizarro leads his expedition into South America

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Atahualpa

The Inca chief

64

Viceroy

The king's representative in the New World

65

Century of gold

1550-1640
The height of the gold-mining in the Americas

66

Encomienda

A system where the Europeans were supposed tolook after the welfare of the natives

67

What happened to the natives

Disease and weapons wiped out thousands of the native Americans

68

Historians call the period between the late 1400s and 1700s the commercial revolution because

Europeans greatly changed their basic business practices

69

New types of business organizations helpdexploration; for example, a joint stock company allowed

Many investors to become co-owners in a single business venture

70

Became known as the navigator and was largely responsible for Portugal's interest in exploration

Prince Henry

71

Made in Overland Crossing of the Isthmus of Panama and proved that the New World was not part of Asia

Vasco Núñez de Balboa

72

Moved the imaginary line drawn from north to south in the middle of the Atlantic and settled the Spanish and Portuguese conflict over new lands

Treaty of Tordesillas

73

Made an overseas route from Europe to India and the East Indies available

Bartolomeu Dias
Vasco da agama

74

Believed that a shorter route to Asia good be found by sailing west word from Spain, instead of around Africa

Christopher Columbus

75

Allowed products, plants, animals, and diseases to travel between the western and eastern hemisphere

Colombian exchange

76

Sailed in 1513 northward from the Caribbean to Florida, on the North American mainland

Poncé de Leon

77

Carved out a huge empire in_______ and plundered the mighty Aztec civilization

Mexico
Hernán Cortéz

78

The Dutch East India Company was founded in 1602 and controlled all of the trade between the Netherlands and the

East Indies

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