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Flashcards in Chapter Four Notes Questions Deck (90):
0

The Middle Ages were also called the

medieval period/times

1

the Middle Ages took place between the end of _______ and beginning of the __________

classical age
modern world

2

In 481 AD _______ becomes ruler of one of the Frankish tribes

Clovis

3

dynasty established by Clovis

Merovingians

4

Because of Clovis's conversion to Christianity, he receives the support of ________.

the Christian Church

5

originally the "mayor of the palace" was

chief of the royal palace

6

ultimately the mayor of the palace was

the real ruler of each kingdom

7

What was Charles Martel known as?

Charles the Hammer

8

In 732 AD the ________ was a war between ________ and _______ and was won by the _______.

Battle of Tours; Christians; Muslims; Christians

9

Pepin the Short was the son of _______

Charles Martel

10

the dynasty of Pepin the Short

Carolingians

11

Donation of Pepin

territory Pepin won and the gave as a gift of land to the pope

12

Charlemagne was the son of _______

Pepin the Short

13

Charlemagne was known as

Charles the Great

14

Charlemagne was the greatest of all

Frankish kings

15

New Rome

Charlemagne's new empire that he wished to build in what is now France and Germany

16

Spanish March

a small strip of land won by Charlemagne from the Moors by driving the Muslims out

17

buffer zone

a buffer between Christians and Muslim Europe
the Spanish March was this

18

Charlemagne was crowned what by the pope?

Emperor of the Romans

19

Missi Dominici

means the Lord's messengers
appointed officials who helped Charlemagne run his empire

20

Louis the Pious was

Charlemagne's only surviving son

21

The Treaty of Verdun in 843 did what?

It divided Charlemagne's empire between his three grandsons

22

Vikings

known as Norsemen or Northmen
were the most feared people

23

Vikings come from

Scandinavia
(Norway, Sweden, and Denmark)

24

Feudalism was a system of

1. local governing 2. granting and receiving land 3. and obligations

25

an unwritten contract between nobles providing for land and certain obligations

Feudal contract

26

fief

these were the feudal estates

27

obligations of a lord to a vassal

1. provided the land 2. provided for a court of justice

28

obligations of a vassal to a lord

must give 1. your loyalty 2. military service (3. maintain land)

29

lord

nobility who granted the fief

30

vassals

a lesser lord who received the fief

31

serfs

peasants who were tied to the land; did hard labor; peasantry

32

What did the church acquire large amounts of in the feudal system?

tremendous amounts of property

33

Three causes of war

1. boundary disputes 2. inheritance disputes 3. family feuds

34

"Peace of God"

the church instituted periods of peace where there would be no fighting (breaks in fighting that the church enforced)

35

Forbidden to attack

people called noncombatants
could not attack old people, children, women, clergy, and townspeople

36

an economic system revolving around self-sufficient estates

manorialism

37

manor

large estates

38

Manors were

self-sufficient

39

domain

the land kept by the lord of the manor for himself

40

what percent of the population was peasantry

95%

41

What were the peasants working conditions like?

5-6 days working from sun-up to sundown hard labor

42

cheval

get the word chivalry from this
means: the art of managing and training your horse

43

code of chivalry directed what?

an knight's behavior towards others

44

the code eventually extended those knightly qualities to

people of lower classes

45

three characteristics of a mounted knight

1. had heavy armor 2. had a weapon of some sorts 3. had a horse and a coat of arms

46

For the nobility, wars were opportunities for

glory or wealth

47

For the rest of society, wars were

a major cause of suffering and hardship

48

trial by ordeal

accused would have to endure an ordeal and innocence or guilt was determined by how quickly the wounds healed

49

compurgation

accuser and accused brought in character witnesses who testified on their behalf

50

Page

began at age seven; learned knightly manners and began to learn how to use and care for weapons

51

squire

took care of a knight's horse, armor, and weapons and would also accompany knight into battle

52

hierarchy

a ranking
an order of power from lowest to highest

53

parish priest

directly served the people in his church; could administer five of the seven sacraments

54

sacraments

ceremonies at which the people received God's direct favor

55

pope

held supreme authority over the Roman Catholic Church

56

canon law

the church's own code of law

57

clergy

any church related official was a part of this group

58

interdiction

the Catholic Church's punishment of a region where the church was closed and sacraments were denied

59

excommunication

when a person is cut off from the church and could not receive sacraments or be buried on sacred ground; effectively removed a person from society

60

heresy

most serious crime in the Middle Ages
opinion that conflicts with the church's doctrines

61

heretic

one convicted of heresy and denied the teachings of the church; sentenced to death

62

investiture

when a nobleman could appoint a friend or relative to hight positions within the church

63

inquisition

a special court that tried only heretics or heresy cases

64

Anglo-Saxon (England)

the Angles and the Saxons were the primary Germanic tribes in England

65

"Land of the Angles"

is ultimately going to be referred to as England

66

shires

government districts

67

The Norman conquest begins

the Norman line of kings

68

Normandy

located in France (and is where William, Duke of Normandy is from)

69

Harold of Wessex

related by marriage to Edward the Confessor and is the opposition to William the Conqueror as both of them claim the throne

70

Battle of Hastings 1066
who defeated who and what is happens as a result

William defeated Harold. William becomes king and is known as William the Conqueror.

71

The Domesday Book

recorded all taxable property and the value of it

72

absolute ruler

a ruler with absolute authority; complete control

73

Magna Carta (1215) known as

the Great Charter

74

what was significant about the Magna Carta

The king was not above the law anymore
had to obey the law

75

common law

a law based on customs

76

Dept. of the Exchequer

deals with the king's finances

77

circuits

the routes that he judges traveled from town to town

78

trial by jury

where the jury would determine the guilt or innocence of the accused

79

Parliament

the legislative body of England

80

House of Lords

nobles and clergy

81

House of Commons

knights and free citizens(burgesses)

82

Court of Exchequer

dealt with financial matters

83

Court of Common Pleas

dealt with ordinary citizens

84

Court of King's Bench

dealt with cases concerning the king or the government

85

living law

a law that changes with the conditions of the times

86

leader of the Norman conquest

Duke William of Normandy

87

William required

all his subjects to swear loyalty to him the king

88

William became known as

William the Conqueror

89

duty of Parliament

originally and advisory body to the king but became the legislative body

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