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Flashcards in Chapter Five Deck (80):
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The Crusades

a series of military expeditions to regain the Holy Land

1

The Holy Land is known as

Palestine

2

Seljuk Turks

Muslims from East Asia

3

What was the Council of Clermont

a meeting that Pope Urban II called to urge the crusaders to take back the holy land after he sees the holy land being taken

4

What does Pope Urban II do at the Council of Clermont?

issues a call to recapture the holy land

5

Crusader

Term for people who volunteered to fight in the Crusades

6

How many people volunteered for the Crusades?

About 60,000 people volunteered to fight against the Turks

7

Promises made to those who fought in the Crusades

1. Adventure 2. If you die in battle you will receive salvation 3. the rumor of wealth and riches

8

What happened to Jerusalem in the first Crusade

Was captured by the Muslims and Christians won it at the end of the Crusades

9

Saladin

Muslim leader in the third Crusade

10

The European leaders of the third crusade

1. Frederick Barbardsa- Holy Roman Emperor 2. Richard the Lionhearted- King of England 3. Philip II- King of France

11

How successful were the leaders of the third Crusade

All three were unsuccessful

12

What did the merchants of Venice, Italy do in the fourth crusade

They persuaded the Crusaders to attack Constantinople

13

What was Constantinople

The rival city of Venice

14

What happened in 1204 to Constantinople

It is taken and looted by the crusaders and the crusaders were excommunicated

15

What happened at the beginning of the Children's Crusade

an army of children marched towards the Holy Land

16

How did the Children's Crusade end

Thousands were captured and sold into slavery

17

What was the overall objective of the Crusades

to regain control of the Holy Land

18

Were the Crusades a success

no. they were a failure because only one was successful

19

What was the political result of the Crusades

the European kings regained their authority

20

usury

loaning money for very high interest

21

bills of exchange

merchants payed for goods in distant cities without having to carry large amounts of money

22

What was the economic and social change brought about by the Crusades?

wealth not property determined one's social status

23

three trading cities of Italy

Genoa, Pisa, and Venice

24

Hanseatic League

located in Germany; a group of trading cities joined together to protect their rights and interests

25

What was the reason that the Hanseatic League was formed?

There was a weak central government so they came together to control trade and protect their rights, interests, and members

26

name some luxury goods

dyes, medicines, silks, and spices

27

name some manufactured goods

cotton cloth, linen, and art objects

28

barter economy

goods and services were exchanged for other goods and services without the use of money

29

domestic system

a system of manufacturing that developed in the Middle Ages where manufacturing took place in a worker's home rather than in a shop or factory

30

capital

wealth that is earned, saved, and invested to make profits

31

market economy

land, labor, and capital are controlled by individuals

32

usury

charging interests on loans

33

charters

written statements of the rights of the townspeople

34

what were the four basic rights granted to townspeople

freedom
exemption
town justice
commercial privileges

35

freedom

if you lived in the town for a year and a day you would be granted freedom

36

exemption

free from work on the manor once granted freedom

37

town justice

the court system of the towns

38

commercial privileges

you could sell your goods in town

39

the new middle class fell between

the nobility and the (already existing) middle class (working middle class)

40

the French middle class

Bourgeoisie

41

the English middle class

Burgesses

42

the German middle class

Burghers

43

How did the middle class gain power

through their economic status

44

guilds

associations of merchants that governed the towns

45

What did the Merchant guild do?

they set prices(determined the value of a product) and maintained quality standards

46

What did the craft guilds consist of?

Skilled craftsmen were members. They set the rules for their trade. Members trained younger craftsmen.

47

just price

the cost of materials plus a reasonable profit

48

Facts about the apprentice

started usually around seven or eight years old; the apprentice learned the craft and earned no wages; usually lasted for about a five to ten year period

49

journeyman

a skilled worker that now received wages; next step up from apprentice

50

masterpiece

a work that would be judged by a master craftsman

51

What happened in your masterpiece was approved?

you became a guild member

52

three appeals of the town

better opportunities
provided protection
provided social interaction

53

three dangers of towns

fire
thieves, pickpockets, robbers
no sanitation
diseases/epidemics ran rampant

54

Black Death was also know as

the bubonic plague

55

Some symptoms of the Black Death

fever
open sores on skin that eventually turned black

56

How did the Black Death get to Europe

caravans from Asia brought rats that brought fleas and fleas were the carriers of the disease

57

What was the impact of the plague?

about 20 million people in Europe died
priests could not deliver last rites to all of the dying

58

Hundred Years' War was for control of the

French throne

59

Edward III

English monarch who claims French throne

60

what did Edward do in 1337

invade France

61

Joan of Arc

was a young peasant girl who claimed that God had spoken to her (and chosen her to lead the French against the English)

62

Wars of the Roses was for control of the

English throne

63

the Wars of the Roses was fought between

two royal families

64

Who were the fighting families and what were their family symbols

Lancasters-red rose
Yorks-white rose

65

Henry Tudor

(is a Lancaster and on the winning side) becomes Henry VII and establishes the Tudor dynasty

66

Ferdinand and Isabella were what type of monarchs

duel monarchs

67

inquisition

court that tried on the crime of heresy

68

Reconquista

the Spaniards try to drive the Muslims out of Spain

69

during Pope Innocent III rule the medieval papacy

reached the height of its power

70

Church was questioned on _____, ______, and _______.

land holdings
raising money
rich clergy

71

What did Pope Clement do in 1309

He moved the headquarters of the church to France

72

New headquarters:
Old headquarters:

Avignon, France
Rome, Italy

73

What began the Great Schism

Roman cardinals elect an Italian pope to please local mobs. Later, cardinals elect a French pope who resided in Avignon

74

What did the Council of Constance in 1417 do

it eliminates both popes and elects a new (Italian) pope

75

John Wycliffe

a priest and teacher at Oxford

76

John Wycliffe didn't believe in

the absolute power of the church

77

John Wycliffe believed what about the Bible

he believed it was the only thing needed for salvation

78

John Huss did what

criticized abuses in the church

79

What was John Huss's punishment

was excommunicated and then later burned at the stake

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