Chapter 12 Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Notes Deck (99):
1

Old Regime

the French government prior to 1789

2

estates

referred to the French social classes

3

1st estate was made up of

the clergy

4

high clergy

was made up of the abbott, bishop, and archbishop
didn't have to pay taxes

5

lower clergy

parish priests- did most of the work with very little pay

6

2nd estate was made up of

the nobility

7

3rd estate was made up of

the rest of the population

8

bourgeoisie

urban middle class/ city workers, day laborers, artisans

9

peasants made up

the largest group

10

the third estate had no

political power or freedoms

11

natural rights were

liberty and equality; this idea was enough to unify the various groups to challenge the king

12

the monarch of France during a financial crisis was who ruled for

Louis XV
59 years
he inherited the debts of Louis XIV

13

in 1774 the new monarch was

Louis XVI

14

Louis XVI married

Marie Antoinette from Austria

15

debts were increasing for France so to raise money Louis XVI tries to

tax the first and second estates

16

by 1787 bankers did not

loan any more money to the French government

17

meeting of the Estates General (May 5, 1789) was a meeting of

the French government

18

the meeting of the Estates General was called by and was held at

Louis XVI
Versailles

19

in the past the 3 estates had met and each estate had only

separately
one vote

20

1st and 2nd estate would

outvote the 3rd estate

21

3rd estate wanted to vote as and their argument was that

individuals
their class truly represented the French people

22

3rd estate and creates a

walked out of the legislature
new government called the National Assembly

23

The action of creating the National Assembly marks

the beginning of the French Revolution

24

Tennis Court Oath

the oath that the National Assembly agreed to that said they will meet until a new constitution is written

25

Bastille is stormed by

peasants on July 14, 1789

26

Bastille

an old prison used to store military surplus items

27

the swept across the land

Great Fear

28

the peasant reaction

they were angry because of food shortages

29

one of the actions taken by the National Assembly by August 1789 to end the old regime

they formally did away with feudalism

30

the Declaration of Rights of Man gave basic

human rights and political power

31

what did the Declaration of Rights of Man say

1. men born equal 2. granted freedoms-speech, press, and religion 3. guaranteed right to a fair trial

32

what was the motto of the revolution

"Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity" (which means brotherhood)

33

emegres

"Noble Emigrants"
they were nobles who fled France fearing for their safety

34

the March on Versailles (Oct. 5, 1789)

was led by angry women and it forced Louis and his family back to Paris

35

What did the Constitution of 1791 do?

1. limited authority of king 2. divided government into three branches

36

Louis plots with __________ and wants to restore __________ but is urged to _________________ and ________________________.

emigres
the monarchy
flee France
get help from foreign governments

37

What happens after Louis tries to flee France?

Louis and his family are captured and brought back to Paris

38

the Legislative Assembly was

the new government that was a limited constitutional monarchy

39

Commune

the radical city government of Paris

40

Louis XVI was accused of

treason and plotting with foreigners

41

on August 10, 1792 armed Parisians _____________ and Louis and his family ___________

storm the palace in Paris
are imprisoned

42

the first meeting of the National Convention was held on ________ and delegates were elected by __________

September 1792
universal manhood suffrage

43

universal manhood suffrage

all mankind(just men) can vote

44

name two of the groups at the National Convention

Girondins and the Jacobins

45

Girondins

feared that Paris would dominate France

46

Jacobins

extreme radicals led by Maximillian Robiespierre

47

the National Convention brought ______ to trial and charged him with _________

Louis XVI
treason

48

How did the National Convention find Louis XVI at his trial

they found him guilty and on January 21,1793 Louis is executed by the guillotine

49

What was the Committee of Public Safety and what did it do?

It was directed to crush opposition
It was a revolutionary tribunal or a special court to try enemies

50

who said this "Annihilate enemies of the Republic"

Robiespierre

51

during the Reign of Terror enemies were

sent to the guillotine for execution
(September 1793-July 1794)

52

July 1794 Robiespierre was ______________ which ended __________

executed by the guillotine
the Reign of Terror

53

the new government formed after the reign of terror in November of 1795

the Directory

54

what was the executive branch like in the directory

the directors were a five member executive in the Directory government

55

What was a problem with the Directory?

the Directors were weak and could not get along with each other

56

the rise of Napoleon began 1796-1815 with wars called

the Napoleonic Wars

57

Napoleon proposed a plan to attack the ______ in ______

British
Egypt

58

the Directory feared that Napoleon would

seize power

59

At first in Egypt Napoleon was ___________ but at Alexandria the British

successful on land
defeat the French fleet

60

coup d'état means

"stroke of state"
the government has now turned over to Napoleon

61

at first Napoleon was a ___________ and the first form of government under Napoleon was a

dictator
republic

62

What was the reason that people accepted Napoleon's dictatorship

he brought political stability and order

63

the title of Napoleon's first five years of dictatorship

Consulate

64

Plebescite

a yes/no vote

65

Napoleonic Code

his uniform set of laws

66

Napoleon then becomes

Emperor Napoleon I

67

what is the symbolism of Napoleon crowning himself instead of the pope

that the power or authority had been given to Napoleon by himself; he was a self-made man and did not need God or the church; he is saying "I did this all by myself"

68

what was the continental system

it was a plan to set up a blockade around Great Britain

69

how did the British respond to the Continental System

they responded with a blockade of France

70

Napoleon's first wife Josephine failed to ____________ so their marriage was ________

provide him with an heir
annulled

71

Napoleon remarries with ________ who provides him with

Marie Louise in 1811
a son

72

in the Peninsular War in 1807 the Portuguese king ___________ and the Spanish king is __________

refuses to follow Napoleon's orders
forced to stop down

73

Joseph Bonaparte is ____________ and the new _________ after the previous one is forced to step down

Napoleon's brother
king of Spain

74

Why did Napoleon try to invade Russia?

he wanted more territory and Czar Alexander I had ignored Napoleon's blockade

75

what was the Grand Army

it was Napoleon's army of over 600,000 people

76

"scorched earth" battle tactic

the Russians are retreating and burning/destroying resources as they fall back so that Napoleon could not use it (ex. houses, food, and other things)

77

"hollow victory"

Napoleon made it to Moscow but there is nothing there of value (ghost town) so they are forced to turn back

78

"General Winter"

refers to the harsh, brutal winter that took tis toll on Napoleon's army

79

how much of Napoleon's army was lost in Russia

about 2/3's of the army was lost to battle, starvation, and desertion

80

Napoleon is finally defeated in October 1813 at

Leipzig

81

Elba

Napoleon's first exile

82

the Allies decide to

reset the boundary of France to what is was in 1790
and restore the monarchy in the person of Louis XVIII

83

Hundred Days

the period when Napoleon returns to power in France

84

Napoleon was defeated for the last time at

Waterloo on June 18,1815

85

who was the leader of the allies that defeated Napoleon for the last time

the Duke of Wellington

86

the place of his second exile

St. Helena

87

the three principles that guided the decision making at the Congress of Vienna

1. got to restore the balance of power 3. legitimacy- we are going to restore the monarchs back to their respective thrones

88

indemnity

a payment for damages

89

Quadruple Alliance (1815)

Great Britain
Austria
Prussia
Russia

90

Holy Alliance

1. formed by Czar Alexander of Russia 2. guided on religious principles

91

concert of Europe

an international governing body formed to keep the peace

92

nationalism

pride, devotion, and loyalty to one's country

93

lycée

government run schools set up by Napoleon

94

The Third Estate was comprised of

the bourgeoisie, urban workers, artisans, and rural peasants

95

One reason that discontent began to grown in France in the mid-1700s was

changing economic conditions

96

Peasants, workers, and the bourgeoisie shared the same ideas and spoke of _______ and ________ as natural rights

liberty
equality

97

Louis XV's _______ angered the public, as his ______ and _____________ were hurting the French economy.

expensive habits
taxes
borrowing

98

In order to try and _________, Louis XVI called for a meeting of the __________ at Versailles in 1788.

raise taxes
Estates General

99

When the Third Estate declared itself the ___________ at the meeting of the Estates General at Versailles, the ___________ had begun

National Assembly
French Revolution

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