Chapter 18 Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Notes Deck (120):
1

By 1914 Europeans had but

been peaceful for about 100 years
countries were competing for colonies

2

Four factors which fueled tension among Europe's powers

nationalism, militarism, imperialism/colonial rivalries, system of alliances

3

1800s various ethnic groups wanted

to gain independence/more political unity

4

militarism

the glorification of armed strength and the military

5

military leaders believed

they could achieved their goals through the threat or use of force

6

By late 1800s

European nations had built large well trained armies

7

mobilize

to prepare an army for war

8

military officers

wer also high ranking government officials

9

British navy world rank

first
the best and largest in the world

10

Dreadnought (1906)

the world's first modern battleship

11

"Two power standard"

the British navy would be stronger than any two powers combined

12

Germany's navy rank

second

13

imperialism

when one country takes control of another country

14

use colonies as and

new markets
raw materials

15

Otto von Bismarck

known as the Iron Chancellor
Prime Minister of Prussia

16

Bismarck's chief goal

to keep France isolated

17

France/Russia

Bismarck prevents this alliance

18

1879 military alliance between

Germany and Austria-Hungary

19

1881 Three Emperor's League

an alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia

20

1882 Triple Alliance

Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary
this kept France isolated and the German borders were secure on the eastern and southern flanks

21

1887 Reinsurance Treaty

Russia and Germany

22

Britain's "splendid isolation"

Britain enjoyed being isolated

23

1904 Entent Cordial

means "friendly understanding"
signed between Great Britain and France

24

1907 Triple Entente

France Russia and Great Britain

25

by 1907 powers of Europe had divided into

two armed camps

26

Balkan "powder keg"

refers to the high tensions in this area

27

Ottoman Empire by the early 1900s was weak but located

militarily
strategically

28

"sick man of Europe"

the major powers of Europe waiting for the Ottoman Empire to collapse

29

"Slavs"

the predominant ethnic group in central, eastern, southeastern Europe

30

annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

both were: protectorates of Austria-Hungary and annexed by Austria-Hungary

31

"powder keg of Europe"

referred to the Balkan peninsula

32

Archduke Ferdinand

heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne

33

Sarajevo

the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina

34

What happened on June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo

Archduke Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated by a Serbian nationalist

35

Gavrillo Princip

the member of a Serbian nationalist group that assassinated the Archduke and his wife

36

"Black Hand"

the national group that claimed responsibility for the assassination

37

Francis Joseph

the emperor of Austria-Hungary

38

Kaiser William I

emperor of Germany

39

"blank check"

a promise by Germany to Austria; Germany gives full support in punishing those responsible

40

Austria's ultimatum to Serbia

time frame: two days
A/H officials wanted to try Princip the assassin

41

If Serbia rejected the ultimatum

war would be declared

42

July 28,1914

Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia

43

August 1, 1914 Germany declared war on and then on August 3. 1914 Germany declared war on

Russia
France

44

Germany's situation

they had to fight a war on both sides
Russia-east France-west

45

Germany's original objective

defeat France quickly and then focus on Russia

46

Schlieffen Plan

bypass France and march through Belgium

47

August 3 Germany invades

Belgium

48

Belgium was a country

neutral

49

plan failed because of and on August 4, 1914 Great Britain declared war on

Belgian resistance
Germany

50

Central Powers

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

51

Allied Powers

Great Britain, France, Russia, later the U.S

52

belligerents

warring nations

53

western front

stretched from Switzerland to the English Channel
approx 600 miles

54

Battle of Marne (Sept 1914)

everyone realized that this would be a long war

55

trench warfare

miles of trenched dug and armies fought in the trenches

56

"no man's land"

barbed wire, land mines, hand grenades, bullets flying

57

eastern front

extended from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea

58

Bosporous and Dardanelles straits were

strategic waterways

59

"race for the sea"

trying to gain an advantage or control over the waterway

60

industrialized war

weapons were mass produced industrially

61

total war

drafting soldiers, factories converted, women working

62

propaganda

using information to shape public opinion

63

atrocities

brutal acts against civilians

64

German U-boats

underwater boats
subs

65

contraband

any material used in the war effort

66

unrestrictive submarine warfare

the Germans fired on any ship

67

Lusitania (March 1916)

British cruise liner that was torpedoed and sunk

68

Arabic and Sussex

two other liners that were sunk

69

"Sussex Pledge"

Germans agreed no to fire without a warning

70

elected president in 1916

Woodrow Wilson and his slogan was "He kept us out of war"

71

during the stalemate both sides wonder

if they can break the lines of the enemy

72

"war of attrition"

slow wearing down

73

Arthur Zimmerman

a German official that sends a telegram to Mexico

74

the telegram contents

he is urging Mexico to go to war against the US

75

telegram plus sub warfare

now Americans are in favor of the war

76

"world must be safe for democracy"

Wilson said it and it justifies the US entering the war

77

war shows Russia's

economic weaknesses

78

three of Russia's problems

1. lack of food 2. lack of industry 3. poor transportation 4. army was poorly equipped or supplied 5. army was poorly led 6. led to enormous war losses

79

by the spring of 1917 the people had lost

faith in the government and the czar

80

peasants paid high

takes, (rents, debts)

81

March 1917

czar abdicated his throne

82

govt set up a

provisional government (temporary)

83

petrograd of Soviet Workers and soldiers

tired to bring about reform in Russia

84

soviet meant

council

85

radicals called for

immediate peace

86

Mensheviks

the more moderate radicals

87

Bolsheviks

the more radical group that became known as the Reds(Red Army)

88

leader of the radicals

Vladimir Lenin

89

slogan of the Reds

peace, bread, and land

90

Nov 7, 1917 The Bolsheviks overthrew

the provisional government and took control of Russia

91

new name of the Bolsheviks

Communist Party

92

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918)

Russia signed a treaty with the Central Powers

93

czar and his family

were executed

94

Red Army

the Communist forces/army

95

new name for Russia

the Union of Socialist Soviet Republic or USSR

96

propaganda

the use of selected bits of information, both true and false, to get people to back an idea

97

Arthur Zimmerman

official of the German foreign ministry who helped push the US into war

98

war of attrition

a slow wearing down process in which each side tries to outlast the other

99

contraband

war materials supplied by a neutral nation to a belligerent one

100

A.E.F.

American Expeditionary Forces
the American troops

101

John J. Pershing

"Black Jack"
the AEF commander

102

"peace offensive"

Germany's last push/attempt to end the war

103

2nd Battle of the Marne (July 15-18)

Allies hold the German advance
the combined Allied forces were successful

104

Marshall Ferdinand Foch

the French commander of the Allies at the 2nd Battle of the Marne

105

Argonne Forest

47 days of fighting pushes the Germans back

106

October (end of the war)

Ottoman Empire surrendered

107

Nov. 3 (end of the war)

Austria signs an armistice

108

Nov 9 (end of the war)

the kaiser of Germany abdicates

109

Nov 11 (end of the war)

Germany agrees to the armistice
fighting ends on 11:00 AM on Nov 11, 1918

110

one term of the armistice

Germany renounces its treaty with Russia

111

Peace Conference was held Jan 1919 at

Versailles

112

Big Four

"Architects of Peace"; U.S. President Wilson; British Prime Minister David Lloyd George; French Premier Clemenceau; Italian Prime Minister Orlando

113

war guilt clause

Germany had to admit to starting the war

114

reparations

payment for war damages
these two things cause extreme bitterness in Germany

115

French reaction

wanted harsh punishment towards Germany

116

Pres. Wilson
"peace without victory" and "just victory"

meant don't seek revenge

117

Points 1-5

"open covenant"
no secrecy; freedom of the seas; reduce arms

118

Points 6-13

liberate the former colonies

119

self determination

let that country decide its own government

120

Point 14

the League of Nations; the US Senate did not approve of the League of Nations so we were not a member; in the future the League would not be as powerful because we were not a member

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