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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Notes Deck (74):
0

Charles I was a believer in

the divine right theory

1

Petition of Right

This was forced onto Charles I by the Parliament

2

What did the Petition of Right say?

1. king could not tax unless Parliament approved it 2. the could not declare martial law 3. cannot board/house/shelter soldiers in private homes 4. the king could not imprison without a reason

3

martial law means

military rule

4

What was Charles I's religious troubles about?

Charles liked the Anglican Church but he married a French Catholic; the Puritans opposed Charles

5

royal courts used by Charles
(used to get rid of people he didn't like)

the Star Chamber
the Court of High Commissions

6

Matters in Scotland

Charles I tried to force Anglican policies in Scotland

7

National Covenant (1638)

the Scottish said that they were going to stand by their policies and not bow to the English's wishes

8

the Long Parliament

is set up after Charles I dismissed Parliament; met for the first time in 1640 and met for the next 20 years

9

The House of Commons in the Long Parliament was controlled by the

Puritans

10

The Long Parliament condemned Charles I as a

tyrant

11

The English Civil War lasted from

1642-1649

12

Cavaliers

AKA Royalists; supported King Charles

13

Roundheads

supported Parliament (mostly Puritans)
(name came from their haircut)

14

Oliver Cromwell

Puritan leader during the English Civil War; was disciplined and dictorial and very strict

15

New Model Army

the name of Cromwell's army

16

Commonwealth

the new government of England

17

January 1649

Charles is defeated, convicted of treason, and beheaded

18

Who was the Lord Protector in Cromwell's Commonwealth?

the Lord Protector was the leader of England and it was Cromwell's title after the commonwealth was set up

19

Instrument of Government (1653)

Cromwell's guidelines for governing

20

What happened at the end of the revolution and after Cromwell had died?

in 1660 Parliament invites Charles II (son of Charles I) to return as king of England

21

Charles II

son of Charles I
nickname was the Merry Monarch

22

Restoration

the monarchy was restored to England

23

What did the Restoration reflect?

It reflected a new beginning or rebirth of culture

24

Tories

favored the Anglican Church and hereditary monarchy

25

Whigs

favored a strong Parliament, opposed a Roman Catholic ruler

26

James

the brother of Charles II

27

in 1685 James

inherits the throne; was an absolute ruler

28

James had 2

daughters; Mary and Anne; Mary is oldest

29

Both daughters

are married and are Protestant

30

James then had a son so there was a threat of

a line of Roman Catholic monarchs

31

1688 Parliament invites

Mary and her husband to replace James as monarch

32

Glorious Revolution/ "Bloodless Revolution"

William and Mary invade; James flees and William and Mary become duel monarchs

33

Leviathan
(this is a book)

written by Thomas Hobbes and it is his political philosophies

34

Hobbes said in his book that

people choose their leader

35

Social Contract said

we give the leader enough power in exchange for safety

36

Natural world

only the strong will survive

37

natural rights

John Locke introduced this concept; life liberty and the right to property

38

John Locke said that if a ruler broke or violated rights

he could be replaced

39

Two Treatises on Government
John Locke's publication

it said an individual's rights are superior

40

writ

a court order

41

Habeas Corpus means

you shall have the body

42

the Habeas Corpus Act protected individuals

against unfair arrest

43

English Bill of Rights

1. Parliament will choose the leader of the government 2. freedom of speech 3. The king cannot impose taxes 4. Parliament must meet frequently 5. no cruel/unusual punishment 6. prohibits excessive bail

44

Parliament was composed of

two chambers or houses

45

The House of Lords

nobility and clergy

46

House of Commons

made up of representatives from the rest of the population

47

Cabinet

they are an advisory body and are in charge of an executive department

48

Prime Minister

head of the majority party and leader of the government

49

first prime minister of England

Robert Walpole

50

limited constitutional monarchy

the crown has powers restricted by a constitution

51

British constitution consisted of several documents that combine to form the basis of govt in England

Magna Carta; Bill of Rights; the Petition of Right; Habeas Corpus; tradition; Parliamentary legislation

52

John Cabot

his voyage gave England its first claim in North America; he was a Venetian captain who sailed for England

53

sea dogs

adventurous English sea captains that were traders but MOSTLY pirates and explorers

54

Sir Francis Drake

first English sea captain to sail around the world

55

Northwest Passage

a northern water route to Asia through or around North America but was never found

56

Henry Hudson

one of the first to search for the Northwest Passage; sailed for the Dutch and discovered the Hudson River and Hudson Bay

57

Jamestown

the first permanent English settlement in North America; established in 1607

58

Plymouth Colony

founded by Pilgrims to escape religious persecution; second permanent English colony established; is in Massachusetts

59

two reasons people came to North America

1. came to find religious or political freedom and escape persecution 2. came for better lives for their families

60

Enlightenment (1700s)

a movement where philosophers emphasized the use of reason

61

the Enlightenment period was also called

the Age of Reason

62

philosophes

the thinkers during the Enlightenment period

63

the philosophies emphasized

freedom of religion, reform for the prison system, no government censorship

64

The Spirit of Laws (1748)

Montesquieu's book where he described the perfect government

65

Montesquieu introduced the idea of separation of powers which is

where the government is divided into three co-equal branches- executive, legislative, judicial

66

executive is there to

enforce (execute) the law

67

legislative branch is there to

make the law

68

judicial is there to

interpret the law

69

Checks and balances

it prevents 1 of the 3 branches from dominating the other two

70

Voltaire said that the best type of ruler was an

Enlightened Monarch which means there would be a king or queen that was educated and would protect the rights of his subjects

71

Rosseau's The Social Contract was

a book that described an ideal society

72

popular sovereignty

the government is created and controlled by the people

73

general will

what's best for the majority

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