Chapter Six-The Italian Renaissance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Six-The Italian Renaissance Deck (101):
0

Renaissance

means rebirth
a philosophical and artistic movement

1

Scholars combine _________ with ________

ancient history
Christian teachings

2

new emphasis on

the power of human reason

3

Renaissance began in

Italy

4

crusades and trade brought contact with

the Byzantine Empire

5

Rich cities of Italy

Florence, Milan, Naples, Rome, Venice

6

family that pushed the Renaissance movement in Florence

Medici

7

list the humanites

grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric

8

humanists

people who specialized in the study of the humanities

9

humanists searched out manuscripts written in

Greek and Latin

10

Most humanists were

Catholics who remained committed to Christian teachings

11

Petrarch

one of the best known humanists

12

Petrarch believed that they should imitate writers by

studying the classical writers

13

classical education

the study of ancient Greek and Roman literature

14

Petrarch believed that his desire for fame might

hurt his chances for salvation

15

The Prince

an essay written by Machiavelli

16

what did The Prince describe

described government not in terms of lofty ideals but how it actually worked

17

Machiavellian means

the ends justify the means

18

Castiglione wrote what book

The Book of the Courtier

19

The Book of the Courtier

was the most famous book of the Renaissance

20

The Book of the Courtier explained

how gentlemen and gentlewomen should act in polite society

21

medieval paintings stressed

religious topics

22

renaissance paintings depicted

lifelike human figures

23

High Renaissance lasted from

late 1400s to early 1500s

24

three talents of Leonardo Da Vinci

architect, engineer, painter, sculptor, and scientist

25

two famous paintings of Leonardo Da Vinci

The Last Supper
the Mona Lisa

26

What is Michelangelo known for

his depiction of the Creation painted on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

27

Rafael was hired by the pope to

beautify the Vatican

28

Rafael was known for his

madonnas

29

madonnas are

paintings of the Virgin Mary

30

Titian was one of the first painters to

become wealthy from his work

31

major rivers/routes that contributed to the spread of ideas

the Danube, Rhine, and Rhone

32

Johannes Gutenberg

1450 first European to use movable type
invented the printing press

33

used the printing press to print copies of

the Bible

34

critics of printed books said

printed books would not last as long
hand copied manuscripts were more beautiful
scribes would lose their jobs

35

scribes

those who made a living by hand-copying manuscripts

36

The Praise of Folly

Erasmus's most famous book

37

The Praise of Folly ridiculed

ignorance, superstition, and vice among Christians

38

Utopia condemned

governments as being corrupt
written by Thomas More

39

Thomas More's refusal to agree to king's supremacy

caused him to be beheaded

40

William Shakespeare was the leading

literary figure of the time

41

three famous works of Shakespeare

Hamlet
Romeo and Juliet
Macbeth

42

Reformation

a religious revolution

43

three causes for the Protestant Reformation

1. Church was more interested in income than saving souls 2. pope acted as a political leader and warrior instead of a moral leader 3. priests engaged in vice and misconduct instead of encouraging spiritual and moral behavior

44

the break for the Protestant Reformation took place in

modern day Germany

45

indulgences

pardons from punishment for sin that could be bought

46

Johann Tetzel sent to

raise funds in the northern German states by selling indulgences

47

Popes sold indulgences to

raise money for the church

48

Martin Luther's beliefs became know as

Lutheranism

49

Luther said that ceremonies and good deeds

made no difference in saving a sinner

50

Luther said only thing that counted was

an inner faith in God

51

Luther said salvation gained only

through the grace of God

52

the idea that salvation could only be gained through the grace of God was called

justification by grace through faith

53

95 theses

Luther posted these statements about indulgences on a church door

54

Luther claimed that the Bible was

the sole religious authority

55

in 1521 Pope Leo X declared

Luther a heretic

56

Luther''s punishment for being declared a heretic

he was excommunicated

57

Protestantism/ Protestants

Luther's beliefs and Luther's followers

58

the Peace of Augsburg said that

each German ruler had the right to choose the religion for his state

59

What did the subjects have to do under the Peace of Augsburg

they had to either accept the ruler's decision or move away

60

sects

religious groups

61

King Henry VIII caused

the break between England and the Roman Catholic Church

62

"Defender of the Faith"

title that was granted to Henry by the pope

63

What did Henry want to do

he wanted to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon

64

Henry was unhappy because

he had no male heir

65

Henry wanted to marry

Anne Boleyn

66

Catholic Church didn't usually permit divorces but could

make exceptions

67

Pope Clement VII refused to

meet Henry's demand for divorce/annulment

68

Because pope refused his demands Henry

withdrew England from the Catholic Church and began a new church

69

Church of England

new church created by Henry VIII
also known as the Anglican Church

70

Who was the head of the Anglican Church

the king was established as the head of the church

71

Anglican Church granted

Henry VIII a divorce

72

what was the act of supremacy

an act of Parliament that recognized the monarch as head of the church
Henry would be head of the church but later that act would be rescinded

73

Predestination

the idea that at the beginning of time God decided whou would be saved
this idea came from John Calvin

74

the elect

those who were predestined for salvation

75

theocracy

a government ruled by religious leaders who claimed God's authority

76

Hugenots

French Calvinists

77

Counter Reformation

also known as the Catholic Reformation
began as an attempt to return the church to an emphasis on spiritual matters

78

the Counter Reformation was also a

campaign to stop the spread of Protestantism

79

Pope Paul III brought the

Inquisition to Rome (only tried heresy)

80

What was the Index (published 1559)

Catholics were banned from reading the books listed in the Index

81

Council of Trent did what three things

1. defined the official church position on matters of doctrine 2. acted to end the abuses in the church and those that surrounded the sale of indulgences 3. tightened discipline within the clergy

82

Council of Trent said that

1. you should depend on priests because God granted forgiveness only through the church 2. and salvation came from ceremonial church actions as well as individual faith

83

during the 1530s to mid 1600s there were

devastating religious wars

84

Most striking result of the religious upheaval

the appearance of many different churches

85

bad spirits

called demons
made life difficult

86

wise/cunning people

an older village member thought to have a special understanding of how the world worked

87

good witches

another name for wise people

88

bad witches

thought to bring bad luck

89

bad witches were said to have made

a pact with the devil

90

usually _________ were accused of being bad witches because _______

elderly widows
easy targets

91

primary occupation of the people

farming

92

communities tended to ____________ and ____________

work
make decisions together

93

if anyone upset village traditions

they were treated harshly

94

broadsides

single printed sheets of information

95

almanacs

published predictions about the weather or prospects for growing crops

96

standard of living

the measure of the quality of life

97

peasantry made up ___% of the population

85-90

98

Black Death reduced population by

1/3

99

peasants were trapped in

poverty

100

superstitions

no longer played an important role in people's views of daily life

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