Chapter 19 Part 2 Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19 Part 2 Notes Deck (49):
1

Benito Mussolini

Italian dictator beginning in the 1920s

2

Mussolini's political party

Fascist Party

3

characteristics of fascism

glorify the military; strong, dynamic leader; nationalize (government owns) key industries; prohibiting civil liberties

4

dictatorship

the government is run by a small group or an individual

5

totalitarianism

another word for dictatorship basically; the government controls every aspect of citizens' lives

6

Black Shirts

Mussolini's followers and this is how they were identified

7

Oct 1922 March on Rome (Met in Rome)

1. Mussolini convinces the Italian king there is a communist threat in Rome 2. the king appoints Mussolini as Premier 3. Mussolini sets up his dictatorship 4. he then appoints party members to key government posts

8

police state

civil liberties are gone; censorship; secret police force; forced labor (labor camps)

9

"IL Dulce"

means The Leader; the title Mussolini took

10

Weimar Republic

a government set up b the Allies in Germany after WWI

11

Germany's public opinion of the Republic

German people felt that their leaders had let them down and betrayed them; they felt "stabbed in the back"

12

Munich Beer Hall Putsch

1923; extreme nationalists attempt to overthrow the Republic; these nationalists eventually known as the Nazi Party; unsuccessful

13

Hitler

led the overthrow attempt; sentenced to five years but served about nine months

14

Nazi Party

stood for Nationalist Socialist German Workers Party; primarily made up of German workers

15

Mein Kampf

book that Hitler wrote in prison; means "My Struggle"; Hitler's outline for his political ideals in Germany

16

"Greater Germany"

calling for Germany to return to greatness (in Mein Kampf)

17

"master race"

referred to as Aryans; his super race

18

Aryans

ancient civilization that had this concept that their race was perfect; name for the Master Race; blue eyes/ blond hair

19

Reichstag

German legislature

20

Fire at Reichstag

mysterious fire breaks out; no one convicted though had a lot of damage; late at night and no one was hurt or killed; Hitler persuades the German president to appoint him Chancellor

21

Gestapo

Hitler's secret police

22

ghettos

Hitler fenced in ethnic neighborhoods (particularly Jews)

23

star of David

symbol that Jews had to wear to identify that they were Jewish

24

Der Fuhrer

Hitler's title; means the leader

25

concentration camps

originally labor camps but eventually became death camps

26

Third Reich

Hitler's government; third "great" German empire

27

Rhineland 1936

Western Czechoslovakia, Hitler marches his troops here and violates the Treaty of Versailles

28

France and Britain's reaction to Germany taking the Rhineland

they could not stop him; not strong enough

29

Rome-Berlin Axis

alliance between Italy and Germany

30

Paul von Hindenburg

the German president when Hitler became dictator

31

"Lebesraum"

means living space; Hitler's justification for expanding; his excuse/reason

32

Anti-Semetism

hatred of the Jews

33

Ethiopia 1936

Ethiopia is going to be the first acquisition of Mussolini's empire

34

protectorate

Ethiopia becomes a protectorate; the country keeps its own government but Italy was actually in control

35

USSR

Union of Soviet Socialists Republic; Russia's new name after the Revolution of 1917

36

Vladimir Lenin

leader of the Revolution; leader of the communists who becomes the leader of Russia after the Revolution

37

war communism

Lenin's first plan to restructure the Russian economy that was a failure

38

nationalization

the government takes over key industries

39

new economic policy

second pan to restructure the economy that was also a failure

40

major industries

heavy industry, agriculture, mining, and oil; the heavy industry and agriculture were the two major focus points

41

collective farms

government controls all the land and the farmers work together to farm it

42

Trotsky-Stalin rivalry

Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin emerge as rivals to be the next leader in Russia; power struggle; Trotsky was murdered; Stalin gets support of the Communist Party and Stalin becomes the new leader of Russia

43

command economy

when the government takes control of all economic decisions

44

Five Year Plans

long range economic plans of Stalin's; two key areas of growth were heavy industry and agriculture; first one started in 1928 and the second one in 1933

45

Supreme Soviet

the Soviet legislature

46

Politburro

the head organization of the Communist Party

47

puge

Stalin is going to have a large scale elimination of disloyal people (called the Great Purge) (about 5 million people fell victim to this)

48

comintern

organizations set up by Stalin to spread communism

49

Cheka

the secret police in Russia

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