Chapter 21 Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21 Notes Deck (120):
1

Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928

Frank B. Kellogg- US secretary of state
Aristide Briand-French minister
agreement made war illegal

2

Japan made one of the first

challenges to the pact

3

Osachi Hamaguchi 1930

prime minister of Japan and was fatally shot

4

in September 1931 Japan's forces take

control of Manchuria

5

by 1939 Japan controls

most of China

6

Mussolini and overseas expansion

believed expansion would ease some of Italy's economic problems

7

Ethiopia

one of the few independent nations in Africa and the first target of Mussolini

8

1935 Italian forces and in 1936 Mussolini

invaded and defeated Ethiopia
adds Ethiopia to the empire

9

2nd Spanish Republic

new government of Spain in the early 30s

10

new government splits Spain into two groups

Nationalists vs. Loyalists

11

Nationalists were also called

Falangists

12

the Falange was

a fascist party led by General Francisco Franco

13

Loyalists

supported the Republic

14

Germany and Italy sent

military to help the Nationalists

15

Rome-Berlin Axis

a military alliance between Hitler and Mussolini

16

International Brigade

volunteers from France, Great Britain, and the US that helped the Republic

17

by the spring of 1939 the Nationalists forces

had defeated the Loyalists

18

General Franco becomes

Spain's head of the state/dictator

19

1933- Hitler announces

that he would rearm the country

20

1936 March-Hitler and violates

marches his troops into the Rhineland
the Treaty of Versailles

21

Axis Powers

Hitler and Mussolini called themselves this; their new name

22

Anti-Comminturn Pact

Japan and Germany signed this; it is against communism; promising to stop the spread of communism

23

Austrian Chancellor agrees

to union with Germany

24

Hitler takes

Austria with a show of force

25

Anschluss

the union between Germany and Austria; meant "living space"?/expand

26

Sudetenland was located

on the western part of Czechoslovakia

27

how many Germans were there living in the Sudetenland

more than 3 million

28

natural defense for Germany in the Sudetenland

a chain of mountains

29

appeasement

the policy of giving in to the aggressor to keep the peace

30

Munich Conference (September 29, 1938)

was called by Hitler
Neville Chamberlain, the English Prime Minister, and Edouard Daladier, the French Prime Minister, attended

31

Hitler promised what at the Munich Conference?

he promised no more territorial acquisitions

32

March 1939 German troops invade

Czechoslovakia

33

Britain and France realize

they cannot trust the dictators and cannot ignore them anymore
and prepare for war by rearming

34

Stalin's concerns about allying with Britain and France

Stalin feared the Western powers would welcome the chance to turn Hitler loose on them because they hate communism

35

Nazi-Soviet Pact (Aug. 1939)

a non-aggression pact where both promise not to attack the other; Germany would take western Poland and the Soviet Union would take eastern Poland

36

Danzig

seaport city in Poland

37

Polish corridor

a strip of land that gave Germany access to the sear

38

Sept. 1, 1939 Hitler

attacks Poland and starts WWII

39

September 3, 1939 Britain and France

declare war on Germany

40

blitzkrieg

means lightning war; attack with great speed and force

41

after a month of fight Poland

surrendered to Hitler

42

France move along the with their fortifications in

Maginot Line
France

43

Germany move along the fortifications in

Siegfried Line
the Rhineland

44

"phony war"

about seven months between Poland's surrender and the next battle; the armies weren't fighting

45

Soviets invade Sept. 1939 and Nov. 1939

eastern Poland
Finland

46

the low countries

the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg

47

Hitler invades and in April 1940 and Germany gains

Denmark
Norway
an outlet to the sea

48

France and Britain finally realize

that Hitler was an immediate threat to their safety

49

the new English Prime Minister May 10, 1940

Winston Churchill

50

allied troops attempt to escape from

Dunkirk

51

May 27- June 4

about 338,000 soldiers were transported across the channel to England and safety

52

Hitler's failure to attack

allowed the Allies to escape and was a costly mistake

53

After Dunkirk, France was

left to fight alone on the European continent

54

June 14, 1940 the Germans

enter Paris

55

German troops occupy including

northern France
Paris

56

French leader willing to surrender to Germany

Philippe Petain

57

moves the French government to

Vichy

58

German controlled government of France
referred to as a

Vichy France
puppet government

59

led the Free French Movement

General Charles de Gaulle

60

Free French Movement

a secret resistance movement to undermine the Nazi war effort/sabotage

61

Luftwaffe

German air force

62

Royal Air Force (RAF)

Britain's air force/ saved Great Britain

63

Neutrality Acts (1935 and 1937)

U.S. could not 1. sell war equipment to warring nations 2. make loans to these nations 3. or sail on their ships/couldn't sail in the war zones

64

isolationists

believed Europe's wars should not concern the US

65

Destroyer Deal

we give 50 old destroyers to Great Britain

66

Congress passes

the first national draft

67

Lend-Lease Act

authorized the president to supply war materials to Great Britain on credit

68

Atlantic Charter (August 1941)

attended by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill
U.S. announces the democratic goals shared by Great Britain and the US

69

the German airfare and was used to soften up Great Britain for invasion

Luftwaffe

70

said that Americans could not sell military equipment to warring nations, make loans to these nations, or sail on their ships

Neutrality Acts

71

a new kind of warfare that took place with great speed and force

blitzkrieg

72

the Frenchman who led the Free French government in its continued opposition to Germany

Charles de Gaulle

73

authorized the president to supply war materials to Great Britain on credit

Lend-Lease Act

74

replaced Neville Chamberlain as prime minister and was one of the few politicians to speak out against appeasement in the 1930s

Winston Churchill

75

the German air raids on Britain and the British efforts to counter these nightly raids

Battle of Britain

76

Spain under the rule of remained

Franco
neutral

77

Mussolini hoped to build

a Mediterranean empire for Italy

78

British liberated

Ethiopia

79

Erwin Rommel

the commander of the German troops in N. Africa known as the "Desert Fox"

80

El Alamein (October 1941)

Axis forces forced to retreat and was a major turning point in this area

81

June 22, 1941 Germany invades

Russia

82

"scorched earth"

slowly retreating soldiers and civilians carried everything they could and burned the rest

83

spring 1942 offensive to the south- Hitler wants to

take the oil producing area and some farmland

84

Stalingrad's capture

was made the main objective of the offensive

85

Sept 1940 Japan allies with

Germany and Italy
known as the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis

86

Hideki Tojo

Japanese premier and head of the government

87

early 1941 the Japanese government realized

that their most dangerous potential threat was the U.S.

88

Dec. 7, 1941

Japanese launch a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor with the goal of destroying the US Pacific fleet

89

FDR quote about Pearl Harbor

a day that will live in infamy

90

Dec. 8, 1941 Congress

declares war on Japan

91

Hitler's New Order

wanted to make the European continent into a single political and economic system

92

planned to gain " " in eastern Europe

living space

93

pure " " would colonize the area

Aryan race

94

land in Soviet Union would supply Germany with

food and raw materials

95

1941- Hitler ordered the destruction of

Europe's entire Jewish population

96

program to eradicate entire Jewish population

the Final Solution

97

genocide

the systematically erase an entire ethnic race

98

military branch of the Nazi party

SS

99

leader of the Ss and headed the Final Solution

Heinrich Himmler

100

Wannsee Conference Jan. 1942

Hitler set out a systematic plan for exterminating the Jews in concentration camps

101

"Arbeit Macht Frei"

work makes you free

102

Holocaust

the Nazi genocide where they killed 6 million Jews
means fire that consumes/ fire that burns completely

103

Battle of Stalingrad

lasted for six months
on Feb. 2, 1943 the German troops surrender and it becomes a major turning point in the war

104

Dwight D. Eisenhower

leads the troops in North Africa

105

Mid May 1943

the Axis forces in North Africa were forced to surrender

106

"soft underbelly of the axis"

refers to southern Italy where the Axis Powers were the most vulnerable

107

Coral Sea

fought entirely in the air

108

Midway

Allied victory; Allies go on the offensive

109

Guadalcanal

first American invasion Japanese-held territory

110

island

take key islands and bypass others

111

D Day/Normandy invasion (June 6, 1944)

also called Operation Overlord
resulted in the liberation of France

112

April 30, 1945 Hitler

committed suicide

113

May 8, 1945

V-E Day
the day of victory in Europe

114

Yalta Conference

Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin decide how to divide Germany

115

Potsdam Conference

Truman, Churchill, and Stalin; unconditional surrender of Japan

116

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

two cities that were both bombed with atomic bombs
August 6, 1945 and August 9, 1945

117

September 2, 1945

V-J Day
victory in Japan

118

a long and bloody six month battle that proved to be a major turning point in the war

Battle of Stalingrad

119

belief that Japanese pilots-called kamikazes- would save the empire if they were willing to die for the emperor

"Divine Wind"

120

commander of the US troops who, with the British, forced Axis Powers in North Africa to surrender

Dwight D. Eisenhower

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