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Flashcards in Chapter 8/9 Review Deck (54):

Why were Europeans attracted to North America

Because the queen of Spain was convinced they could find north east passage for trading to Asia

There were many great resources in North America


Who were the three C's of Canadian history

Cabot Cartier and Champlain


What was the cure for scurvy

The cure for scurvy was a tea made of Spruce bark and needles


Purpose of a colonie

The purpose of of colonie is to buy raw materials from the colonie then sell finished products back

The purpose was primary to bring money to the home country



getting raw materials for cheap, then sell a finished product, to make profit


Difficulties for french sailors

They had to survive in the difficult Canadian winter and 25 of them died of scurvy

They were starving


Diamonds and gold

These diamonds and gold were actually board worthless quarts crystals and iron pyrite


Popular pelts

Popular hell never Wolf Fisher Martin Lynx and other animals


Settlement site what did Champlain look for

Champlain wanted a settlement site that could not be attacked by an enemy easily

That is why Quebec was so great because it was a location which in and we cannot take by force


Jesuits difficulties

Paths Jesuits found it difficult to learn the native language

Jesuits had tried to Stay out of politics but it was hard not to get involved


The couriers de bois

They traveled the waterways in birch bark canoes in search to trade even though there was a monopoly on fur trading and it was illegal


Jean talon

He recruited the filles du rio to come to Canada to join the men in the colonies


What was the company of a Hundred Associates?

.1627 French fur trading company. Had the monopoly for New France.


What is mercantilism?

.belief in the benefits and profits of training commercialism


What is important about the Habitants (peasants) and taxes?

They paid less taxes then ones in Britian


What was important about the seven years' war?

It was a battle for Quebec


What is important about the Plains of Abraham?

The Plains of Abraham is where the great battle for Quebec was. the French had Quebec, but then they surrendered Quebec to the British


Who could the colonies trade with?

.The French traded with France, the British traded with Britain. Mostly they send the raw supplies from North America back to their home. They traded locally with native people.


What was the seigneurial system?

The land distribution system of New france. Based on the feudal system, peasants working the land. The tenant farmer was called a HABITANT


Explain Acadia and the expulsion.

Acadia would not swear loyalty to Britian so the British went and kicked them all out of Acadia


Who is Leif Erikson?

Leif Erickson sometimes called Leif the lucky

Places he called helluland, Markland, and Vinland

L'anse aux meadows in Newfoundland have convinced many historians that Vineland was really northern Newfoundland


Who is Donnacona?

.Chief of the Stadacona natives nearby Quebec city. Cartier took him back to France and he died there.


Who is Sieur De Monts?

.The Royal Commisioner of New France in 1662, sent by the King of France to find out what the colony needed. He was only in Canada for 8 days, and felt that the colony could be established here.


Who is Jean Talon?

The first Intendent of New France. Wanted to increase agriculture to replace fur trading, but needed to increase the population so Jean talon brought a bunch of girls to North America for the men in the colonies "filles U roi"


Who is James Wolfe?

James wolf was The leader of the French forces that were invading Quebec they scaled amountain to get to Quebec


Who is Marquis de Vaudreuil?

.the Governer general of New France 1755-1760, and French Louisanna from 1743-1752
Allied with natives against the British, armed the native population to fight the British
He was criticised b/c of the unregulated use of Indians to fight and their nasty tactics such as massacring soldiers


What are the Grand Banks?

.An area off the New Foundland coast that was rich in Cod. It became a controversy between Canada and France as to who owned the fish resource


What is L'Anse aux Meadow?

It is a place in Newfoundland. First Viking settlement that has been found. They were attacked by natives and left.


Who were the Files due Roi?

They were women going to the new colonies for the men who were already there. The KIng's Daughters. He provided a dowry and small household items to set them up in homes in New France. Trying to increase the population in Canada by importing women.


Who is Humphry Gilbert?

.British explorer looking for the North West Passage.
Thought North America was the lost Atlantis
Step brother was Sir Walter Raleigh, died on the way home when his boat sank. He claimed Newfoundland and St. Johns for England.


Who were the Kirke Brothers?

.formed the Company of Adventurers and was given patents by Charles 1 to trade and settle in Canada. Became the governor of Newfoundland. Had run ins with Champlain to get him to give up New France. Finally the French had to leave, but then Kirke was told in 1632 that he had to give it back to the French.


Who was Alexander Mackenzie?

The first European to travel to the West Coast of Canada by means of the interior
Following the Fraser River

Rapids near the end make voyage DIFFICULTY

arrives at Bella Coola in 1793 and established community already trading with European ships findings are immediately useful not an easy see route


Who was Simon Fraser?

Aboriginal groups are not pleased to see him

He set up posts at Fort MacLeod Fort Fraser Fort St. James in Fort George


Who was David Thompson?

Talented mapmaker

starts off with the Hudson Bay Company but is unimpressed with his employee and joins the northwest coast

surveys and maps Canada including Canada US border

when he got to the Columbian river mouth it was already taken by Americans


Who was Juan Perez?

Spanish explorers went to explore north of Mexico

1774 Perez travels the Queen Charlotte Islands and trades with the HAida but doesn't claim for Spain


Who was Bodega Y Quadra?

1775 and 1779 gets as far as Alaska. Spanish explorer. Spain sent him to claim the North West Coast for Spain and see where the Russians had already claimed. He ended up collaborating with the british explorer George Vancouver who was already in the area.


Who was Vitus Bering?

A Danish explore commissioned by Russian tzar and Peter the Great

explores the North Pacific and bering straight

lands in Alaska and trade with the Aleut people discover valuable resources and see otter pelts


Who was Captain James Cook?

Good British captain who take proper care of the sailors

Travels around the globe discovers Antarctica and proves that the Northwest passage doesn't exist

1778 arrives in the Nootka sound on vancouver island entrance with the people there before continuing south to Hawaii where he is killed


Who was George Vancouver?

Former Officer for cook

Britain sends to strengthen their claim of the northwest coast

Arrives in Burard inlet in 1792 to find ships already there crews agreed to work together to chart the area and eventually the Spanish give up their claim on the area

Vancouver makes wonderful maps and also takes good care of his sailors he dies of exhaustion at the age of 40


What were the interests of the fur traders?

Knives tea pots spoons bowls


What was Rupert's Land?

.The land where the Rivers drained into the Hudson's bay. The British had no idea of how big that area actually is, as they had not really explored much of it yet.


What was the HBC trading post?

They were large factories and forts with clerks who worked in the store

Fur trading posts were the shopping malls of the communities


What was the purpose of the HBC and the NWC explorers?

.Exploration of Canada to find and bring back new sources of fur and supplies.


Explain the relationship between the first nations and the Europeans?

.The first nations people helped to keep the Europeans alive, showed them around as guides, traded with them, helped them fight.


How did women help the fur trade?

Provided social connections which benefit trade

women also interpret and teach husbands culture provided food clothing but were snowshoes and firewood

dress the furs so it can be sold

help make birchbark canoes guide exploration and act as diplomats


what was the Red River Colony?

It was a Scottish settlement in Canada. It is now called Manitoba. Selkirk purchased a large part of the HBC and went to settle the land.


What was the purpose of the Red River Colony?

The purpose of the red river colony was to encourage scots to move to canada? With more people Selkirk could cut off the trade route for the north west company.. Create their own supply places to reduce costly imports from Britain, and allow staff to settle down with their native wives.


Why was there conflict with the Red River Colony?

The governor Of assinoabia foolishly forbad exportation of Pemican from Red River

Pemican more conflict over territory

The Red River company got in the way of the nwcs trading route


What was the Battle of Seven Oaks?

.Pemmican War between the Hudsons bay company and the north west company. the northwestern company workers attacked Fort Douglas and burned down all the buildings in protest of them cutting off the sale of pemmican.


What was the NWC North West Company's view of the Red River Colony?

They were upset that the rrc lay on their trading route

Nwc depends on their pemmican and are hurt when they are forbidden export it


Why did the NWC and the HBC merge?

The Hudson Bay Company in the northwest coast companies merged because there was conflict over territory but there is still some conflict between them


What was the currency used by the HBC?

The courtesy of the Hudson's Bay Company is the beaver pelt

MB or made beaver token can be spent like money


What was life like at a Hudson's Bay company post?

Everyone worked very hard with few holidays

life is generally one of boring routine same people harsh climate cold winters and bugs in summer


What was different about the fur trade on the west coast?

.Sea Otter fur, mostly sold to China. A ship based vs a canoe based trade

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